Foreign Policy Alliances Foreign Aid Economic Sanctions Military Force
Key Concepts • The Constitution creates a power struggle between the president and Congress over Foreign Policy • WWII created a need to coordinate foreign policy in new ways • Differing worldviews among the political elites have dominated the nations’ foreign policy • The defense budget creates controversies regarding military expenditures • Military decision-making involves a structure that starts with the president and moves through the various services of the military
The Constitutional and Legal Context • The Constitutions ambiguous definition of foreign policy powers of the president and Congress invites conflict: • The president is a _________________, but congress appropriates money for foreign and military operations. • The president appoints _____________, but the senate confirms them • The president negotiates ___________, but the senate must ratify them with a 2/3rds vote. • Although Americans often think the president is in charge of foreign policy, only congress can ________________ with other nations and __________________. • Most presidents have more success in Congress over Foreign Affairs rather than Domestic Why?
U.S. President Compared to other Country Leaders • Is the Office of the President weak or strong? • Other countries find us _____________ • Examples: Inability to ally with Great Britain in WWI and WWII • League of Nations • Regan and Lebanon • Bush-Gulf War • How does the Supreme Court react to this power struggle? • Reluctant to ______________________ • Examples: Nixon and Vietnam • Lincoln and Civil War • Carter and Iran • FDR relocation of Japanese Americans
How is the Presidents power is checked? • Congress controls the purse strings • Prez limited in _______________________ to other countries • Examples: Arms sales to Turkey • Angola • War Powers Act • Has the president ever over stepped boundaries? • Ford, Carter, Reagan, Bush and Clinton • NO President has acknowledged the ________________ of War Powers Act • Congress has never challenged a successful operation
The Foreign Policy Theories • Isolationism • . • Containment • . • Disengagement • . • Human Rights • .
The Defense Budget • Prevailing views • Majoritarian Politics • Everyone receives ______________—everyone pays • Examples: war, military alliances, Cuban Missile Crisis, Diplomatic recognition of the People’s Republic of China • Interest Group Politics • Groups pitted _________________ for costs and benefits • Examples: Tariffs, Japan vs. Steel • Client Politics • _________________ pay—and military industry/contractors benefit • Contracts to build “Big Ticket Items”
The Defense Budget • The type and scope of military involvement since WWI has changed • . • Budget Controversies • Big ticket items • Small ticket items • Privatization of military duties (food/housing) • Training • BRAC (Base Realignment and Closure)
The Structure of Military Decision-Making • Created since WWII but reflects founders concerns • Civilian _________ over military maintains balance • President—Commander and Chief to Secretary of Defense then the JCS. • JCS are approved by Congress
Foreign Policy and National Defense Fourpriorities and goals of American Foreign Policy a. b. c. d.
Foreign Policy and National Defense The president takes the lead in foreign policy. The four agencies that assist the president: a. State Department- b. National Security Council (NSC)— c. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)— d. Department of Defense (DOD)—
Foreign Policy and National Defense The threetools that the U.S. uses to aide diplomatic policy a. Foreign Aid— b. Economic sanctions— c. Alliances—
Foreign Policy and National Defense The three common defense policies: a. Covert operations— b. Political Coercion— c. Military Intervention—
Foreign Policy and National Defense War Powers Act of 1973 --The War Powers Act of 1973 (Public Law 93-148) limits the power of the President of the United States to wage war without the approval of Congress. • The purpose of the War Powers Resolution is to ensure that Congress and the President share in makingdecisions that may get the U.S. involved in hostilities. • Portions of the War Powers Resolution require the President to consult with Congress prior to the start of any hostilities as well as regularly until U.S. armed forces are no longer engaged in hostilities • To remove U.S. armed forces from hostilities if Congress has not declared war or passed a resolution authorizing the use of force within 60 days • Following an official request by the President to Congress, the time limit can be extended by an additional 30 days (presumably when "unavoidable military necessity" requires additional action for a safe withdrawal).