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Foreign Policy

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  1. Foreign Policy Spring 2010

  2. Neoconservative Transformers (Bush43 adm) US enforces rules on other countries altho not necessarily abides by them, because it is sole unchallenged superpower US #1 military force and should not be reluctant to use it Unilateral approach for dealing with for pol problems; internat’l org may come betw US and its best interests Spreading democracy in best interest of US Neoliberal Transformer Spreading democracy in US natl interest Nonmilitary means favored over military action Multilateral approach; Support from internatl org important to future endeavors Shared cooperation; sees global interdependence Perspectives and Beliefs

  3. Conservative Maintainer US must be prepared to use military force Diplomacy and eco aid secondary Global interests often differ from US interests Power is an imp asset which must be maintained and used carefully Better to take action with others than to act alone so costs and risks can be shared Power is more effective if viewed as legitimate Isolationist Maintainer Military power used only to shield/protect US interests Protect Am lives and property, US territory, and Am pol sys US minimally accountable to allies and internatl community Other countries must learn to defend themselves Foreign policy should consist mostly of cultural, commercial and diplomatic interactions Reduce foreign aid and reduce # troops abroad Perspectives contMaintainers – Internatl interests threat to US int

  4. Using the perspectives on Iraq • Neoconservatives – • Iraq war essential to future security of US • 2nd maj mil operation under War on Terror • nec remove Hussein from power even if no WMD • US cannot leave until democracy and eco recovery assured • Neoliberals -- • Economic sanctions better than mil invasion • UN must play increased role so that “stigma of Am occupation” is removed; also to advance human rts and to establish the rule of law as replacement on counterterrorism emphasis • Conservatives – • Prefer a true mulitnatl force/alliance to reduce pol and eco costs to US • War in Iraq has distracted US from true goal of seeking out Bin Laden and his terrorists • By acting unilaterally, the US disrupted the bal of global politics and made US more of a target for our enemies • Isolationists – • Supported war in Afghanistan, NOT Iraq • Attempts of “democracy building” futile in ME region • Should focus on more rigorous efforts for homeland security, not overseas

  5. Foreign Policy Tools • Three types of tools: • Military: oldest and still used • Limited wars • Economic: becoming more powerful • Trade regulations, tariffs, and monetary policies • Debt assistance – low rates, co-sign/guaranty, forgiveness • Technology assistance • Diplomatic: the quietest of the tools • Negotiations and summits

  6. Who assists President in setting foreign policy? • Dept of State – decreasing influ • NSA – Condoleezza Rice • NSC – • Dept of Defense • CIA • Dept of Homeland Security • New to scene  Chief of Staff & VP • Both dependent on what Pres wants them to accomplish • Andrew Card (Bush 43) advocated immigration reform • Howard Baker (Reagan) Iran-contra backlash; fall of Soviet Union • Gore (Clinton) – expert on Russia • Dan Quayle (Bush 41) expert on Latin America • Congress – • Oversight function of CIA, and Depts • Budget – follow the money! • Does public care? Can I be reelected? • Supreme Court -- • Consistently upheld treaties over state laws (Texas case?) • Consistently supports Pres in conflicts with Congress • Reluctant to grant broad exec powers in civil liberties arena (ex. Guantanamo Bay hearings)

  7. Past Policies • Isolationism • Monroe Doctrine/Roosevelt Corollary • Imperialism/Expansionism • “Leader of Free World” • Containment • Reagan – Strategic Defense Initiative aka “Star Wars” • Disengagement • Interdependency & Globalization [eco]

  8. National Security/Defense Policies • McNamara Doctrine – use of limited and graduated use of military force is permissible when a recognized problem demands a military response, with or without public support • Supported by Defense dept. • Powell Doctrine –decisive use of American military only when clear public support for the use of force exists and an exit strategy is in place • Supported by career military

  9. Vietnam Syndrome • Belief, attributed to the US experience during the Vietnam War, that the public will NOT support the use of military force if it results in significant Am casualties and long-term costs (indirect costs as well as indirect costs such as budget constraints on other domestic programs) • “Rally ‘round the flag” effect • Used when crises is perceived as threatening Am security or when US troops sent into combat • Short term effect unless public perceives a “winning end”

  10. The New Global Agenda • The Changing Role of Military Power • Military might is no longer the primary instrument in foreign policy. • Losing its utility to resolve many international issues • Economic Sanctions • Nonmilitary penalties imposed on foreign countries as an attempt to modify their behavior • Generally the first resort in a crisis • Can be effective, but critics argue they only hurt U.S. businesses and provoke a nationalist backlash

  11. The Politics of Defense Policy • Defense Spending • Currently takes up about one-fifth of the federal budget • Conservatives argue against budget cuts that would leave the military unprepared. • Liberals argue for budget cuts to provide more money for programs here in the U.S. • Military spending is hard to cut since it means a loss of jobs in congressional districts. • Trend in reductions reversed after 911

  12. The United States has maintained a sizeable defense capability, from the Cold War to the War on Terrorism. • Nuclear proliferation, terrorism, and international economy dictate U.S. foreign policy and international involvement today.

  13. The New Global Agenda

  14. The New Global Agenda • The International Economy (continued) • Energy • America depends on imported oil, about 60 percent, but not as much as other countries like Japan. • Much of the recoverable oil is in the Middle East which is often the site of military and economic conflicts. • Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC): controls the price of oil and amount its members produce and sell to other nations

  15. The New Global Agenda • The International Economy (continued) • Foreign Aid • Foreign aid is used to stabilize nations friendly to the United States. • A substantial percentage of foreign aid is military. • Foreign aid has never been very popular with Americans and is typically cut by Congress.

  16. New Agreements • CAFTA – like NAFTA only Central America, passed 2005 – barely! • For  foster competition abroad, help impoverished countries develop and stabilize, • Against  loss of US jobs, cut into US sugar industry as increased amt of sugar imported thru C.A. cutting US profits

  17. The New Global Agenda • The International Economy (continued) • Foreign Aid • Foreign aid is used to stabilize nations friendly to the United States. • A substantial percentage of foreign aid is military. • Foreign aid has never been very popular with Americans and is typically cut by Congress.

  18. Question • Do our views on human rights abroad reflect our views of civil liberties and freedom at home? • US voting obstacles • Kyoto Protocol (reducing greenhouse gases) • Water boarding and US Patriot Act • Should our views on foreign policy reflect more human rights positions or more economic positions?