Warm-up Harry S. Truman’s use of the A-bomb to end the war with Japan has been studied for many years. Explain why you support his decision or not. What other alternatives did he have?
WARM UP • Who was present at the Yalta Conference? What was the result? • What two things did Russia promise the US at the conference? • What was the policy of the US toward communism after WWII?
The Cold War Superpowers and the specter of nuclear war
The Yalta Conference • February, 1945 • Big Three meet to discuss postwar Germany and other issues regarding the post World War II world. • Tensions between allies becoming apparent.
Tensions between Allies • Churchill concerned with Stalin and Soviet establishment of Soviet-style communist regimes in Eastern European nations liberated by the Red Army
POLAND • After liberating the Poles from Nazi control, the Soviet Red Army occupied Poland. • FDR & Churchill wanted the Poles to have free democratic elections. • Stalin promised to hold unfettered democratic elections in Poland.
Roosevelt & Pacific War • At Yalta, FDR’s health was seriously in decline. • FDR seeks to get help from Soviet Union in the war against Japan • Stalin promises that the USSR would declare war on Japan three months after war against Germany ends.
The United Nations • The Allies agreed to establish an international peace keeping organization following World War II. • This was to replace the defunct League of Nations. • It would be based on the principles of the Atlantic Charter. The United Nations would be the fulfillment of Woodrow Wilson’s dream.
The Potsdam Conference • A new ‘Big Three’ • Churchill, President Harry S. Truman, and Stalin. • Churchill would be replaced by Clement Atlee. • Germany defeated. • Soviet Union promise to enter war against Japan. • Worry that the USSR would do in Asia what had been done in Eastern Europe • Free elections in Poland had not been held.
Superpowers S U P E R P O W E R S
The United States • Leader of the Western Powers • Democracy, Representative government • Capitalism, free-market economy, private ownership • Social freedom • The Soviet Union • Leader of the Eastern Bloc • Communism, socialistic government • Government ownership of industry and property • High degree of government control of society
S T A L I N ‘ s Declaration • In a speech to the Communist Party convention in February of 1946, Stalin outlined plans to expand communism around the world which was viewed as a threat to the Western democratic countries.
CONTAINMENT C O N T A I N M E N T
War in Turkey and Greece • In postwar Europe, civil conflicts break out between communist and nationalist forces in Greece and Turkey for control of government
The Truman Doctrine • “I believe it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.”
Truman Doctrine • Communism and ideological threat that must be confronted anywhere in the world • Promoted the use of American military and economic assistance to forces fighting against communism • Immediately lead to $400 million dollars in aid to Greece and Turkey
“I R O N C U R T A I N” “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia; all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject, in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and in some cases increasing measure of control from Moscow.” Former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill’s speech at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri.
The Marshall Plan • European Economic Recovery Plan • Its purpose was to rebuild European nations economically and prevent the spread of communism. • Open to all European nations which would allow for free democratic elections. • USSR and its satellite nations did not participate. • 16 nations participated receiving approximately $12.5 billion dollars in economic assistance. United States Secretary of State George C. Marshall.
1 94 9 1949
G E R M A N Y - two separate nations Federal Republic of Germany German Democratic Republic
N A T O • North Atlantic Treaty Organization established. • Created out of increased fear of Soviet aggression in Europe and fear of possible World War III. • Defensive Military Alliance.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization • All member countries promised to defend each other. • An attack on any one country was an attack on all NATO nations. • Western European members of NATO. • Belgium, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway and Portugal • North American members of NATO. • The United States and Canada. General Dwight Eisenhower of the United States named as first Supreme NATO Commander
Chinese Nationalists v Communists Lead by Chiang Kai-Shek Lead by Mao Zedong
The People’s Republic of China Communist (Red) Communist Chinese victorious in 1949 American Policy of CONTAINMENT had failed.
The 2nd Red Scare Terrifies America • Cold War fears intensify American paranoia of Communism in the United States • During World War II years, 80,000 Americans claimed membership in the American Communist Party.
Federal Employee Loyalty Program • Loyalty Oaths & Loyalty Review Board. • Investigate government employees. • Between 1947 and 1951, 3.2 million employees investigated, 212 dismissed as security risks, 2,900 resigned because they refused to be investigated.
HUAC investigates Hollywood Was Hollywood sneaking Communist propaganda into movies?
The Hollywood Ten The ‘unfriendly ten’ were those of the 43 witnesses from the film industry who refused to testify. They were eventually sent to prison for their lack of cooperation.
The BLACKLIST • Hollywood executive created a ‘blacklist’ of actors, writers, producers, directors who were said to have communist ties or leaning, and these individuals were banned from work in the American film industry.