Hofstede s cultural dimensions
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Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions. Individualism-collectivism Masculinity-femininity Power distance Uncertainty avoidance. Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions (cont’d). Work-related value dimensions Most influential effort to group by cultural values

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Hofstede s cultural dimensions l.jpg
Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions

  • Individualism-collectivism

  • Masculinity-femininity

  • Power distance

  • Uncertainty avoidance

Hofstede s cultural dimensions cont d l.jpg
Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions (cont’d)

  • Work-related value dimensions

  • Most influential effort to group by cultural values

  • Surveyed over 116,000 employees in more than 70 countries

  • Created maps of pairs of dimensions

Individualism collectivism l.jpg

  • Self-perception as individual or part of a group

  • Most widely studied

  • Most complex

  • Dimensions different across cultures

    • i.e., Asian vs Latin American collectivism

Individualism collectivism cont d l.jpg


High value on autonomy

Individual achievement



High value on group

Family, clan, organization




Individualism-Collectivism (cont’d)

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Assertive acquisition of money/power


Equality of genders

Caring for disadvantaged


Masculinity-FemininityDescribes Importance of Achievement versus Relationships

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High-Power Distance

Accept position

Follow authority

Concentrated & centralized authority


Low-Power Distance

Avoid concentration of authority


Fewer layers of management

Power DistanceAcceptance of differences in power

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Low Uncertainty


Embrace unpredictable

Less adherence to rules, procedures, or hierarchies

Risk taking desirable

High Uncertainty


Threatened by ambiguity

Need stable & predictable workplace

Reliance on rules

Uncertainty AvoidanceReaction to ambiguous events

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Cultural Maps

  • Individualism-Collectivism & Power Distance

  • Uncertainty Avoidance & Masculinity-Femininity

  • Uncertainty Avoidance & Power Distance

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Individualism-Collectivism & Power Distance

  • Large power distance and collectivism

    • Asia and Latin America

  • Small power distance and individualism

    • Northern Europe and Anglo countries

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Uncertainty Avoidance & Masculinity-Femininity

  • Achievement oriented-weak uncertainty avoidance & masculine values

  • Security Motivation-high uncertainty avoidance & masculinity

  • Social Motivation-feminine values & high uncertainty avoidance

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Uncertainty Avoidance & Power Distance Masculinity-Femininity

  • Family-large power distance & weak uncertainty avoidance

  • Pyramid of People-large power distance & strong uncertainty avoidance

  • Well-Oiled Machine-small power distance & strong uncertainty avoidance

  • Village Market-small power distance & low uncertainty avoidance

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Limitation of Hofstede’s Dimensions Masculinity-Femininity

  • Missing countries

    • Estimates values

  • Ignores differences within clusters

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Trompenaars’s Alternative Dimensions Masculinity-Femininity

  • Focus on values and relationships

  • Survey of

    • 15,000 managers

    • Over 10-year period

    • From 28 countries

  • Bipolar cultural dimensions

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Trompenaars’s Alternative Dimensions (cont’d) Masculinity-Femininity

  • Outer-directed—Inner-directed

  • Universalism—Particularism

  • Neutral—Emotional

  • Specific—Diffuse

  • Achievement—Ascription

  • Individualism—Communitarianism