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Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions. Individualism-collectivism Masculinity-femininity Power distance Uncertainty avoidance. Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions (cont’d). Work-related value dimensions Most influential effort to group by cultural values

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Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions

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hofstede s cultural dimensions
Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions
  • Individualism-collectivism
  • Masculinity-femininity
  • Power distance
  • Uncertainty avoidance
hofstede s cultural dimensions cont d
Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions (cont’d)
  • Work-related value dimensions
  • Most influential effort to group by cultural values
  • Surveyed over 116,000 employees in more than 70 countries
  • Created maps of pairs of dimensions
individualism collectivism
  • Self-perception as individual or part of a group
  • Most widely studied
  • Most complex
  • Dimensions different across cultures
    • i.e., Asian vs Latin American collectivism
individualism collectivism cont d

High value on autonomy

Individual achievement



High value on group

Family, clan, organization




Individualism-Collectivism (cont’d)
masculinity femininity describes importance of achievement versus relationships

Assertive acquisition of money/power


Equality of genders

Caring for disadvantaged


Masculinity-FemininityDescribes Importance of Achievement versus Relationships
power distance acceptance of differences in power
High-Power Distance

Accept position

Follow authority

Concentrated & centralized authority


Low-Power Distance

Avoid concentration of authority


Fewer layers of management

Power DistanceAcceptance of differences in power
uncertainty avoidance reaction to ambiguous events
Low Uncertainty


Embrace unpredictable

Less adherence to rules, procedures, or hierarchies

Risk taking desirable

High Uncertainty


Threatened by ambiguity

Need stable & predictable workplace

Reliance on rules

Uncertainty AvoidanceReaction to ambiguous events
cultural maps
Cultural Maps
  • Individualism-Collectivism & Power Distance
  • Uncertainty Avoidance & Masculinity-Femininity
  • Uncertainty Avoidance & Power Distance
individualism collectivism power distance
Individualism-Collectivism & Power Distance
  • Large power distance and collectivism
    • Asia and Latin America
  • Small power distance and individualism
    • Northern Europe and Anglo countries
uncertainty avoidance masculinity femininity
Uncertainty Avoidance & Masculinity-Femininity
  • Achievement oriented-weak uncertainty avoidance & masculine values
  • Security Motivation-high uncertainty avoidance & masculinity
  • Social Motivation-feminine values & high uncertainty avoidance
uncertainty avoidance power distance
Uncertainty Avoidance & Power Distance
  • Family-large power distance & weak uncertainty avoidance
  • Pyramid of People-large power distance & strong uncertainty avoidance
  • Well-Oiled Machine-small power distance & strong uncertainty avoidance
  • Village Market-small power distance & low uncertainty avoidance
limitation of hofstede s dimensions
Limitation of Hofstede’s Dimensions
  • Missing countries
    • Estimates values
  • Ignores differences within clusters
trompenaars s alternative dimensions
Trompenaars’s Alternative Dimensions
  • Focus on values and relationships
  • Survey of
    • 15,000 managers
    • Over 10-year period
    • From 28 countries
  • Bipolar cultural dimensions
trompenaars s alternative dimensions cont d
Trompenaars’s Alternative Dimensions (cont’d)
  • Outer-directed—Inner-directed
  • Universalism—Particularism
  • Neutral—Emotional
  • Specific—Diffuse
  • Achievement—Ascription
  • Individualism—Communitarianism