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Unit6. Cultural information. Cultural information. Cultural information 1. 1. Quote Socrates: Children today are tyrants. They contradict their parent, gobble their food, and tyrannize their teachers. Cultural information. 2. Children from One-Child Families. Cultural information 2.
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Cultural information Cultural information Cultural information1 1. Quote Socrates: Children today are tyrants. They contradict their parent, gobble their food, and tyrannize their teachers.
Cultural information 2. Children from One-Child Families Cultural information2 Some people think that children from only-child families have more merits than shortcomings. Firstly, they value free will and will not accept orders blindly. Secondly, they love trying out new methods and are full of creative ideas. Thirdly, they expect others to treat them as indispensable partners of the team.
Cultural information However, some people believe that the only children have more shortcomings than merits. Cultural information3 Many are heavily dependent on parents. And some never learn to do household chores. It is even worse that some tend to be spoiled and self-centered. They are “the little emperors” in families and schools. What do you think?
Structural analysis Text analysis Text analysis Global Reading-Text analysis1 • What is this expositive text concerned with? • This text is concerned with the pros and cons of . In other words, the text deals with the typical of not having a second child. The text discusses them in an • tone. having only one child _______________________ advantages and disadvantages _________________________________ objective ___________
Structural analysis Text analysis Global Reading-Text analysis2 2. What is the writer’s answer to the question of whether or not to have a second child? It goes as follows: “… there is no simple answer to the question of whether or not to have a second child. The circumstances affecting each set of parents are unique, and what is appropriate for one family may not be for another. The important thing, in the end, is to make a decision that both you and your spouse feel confident about.”
Structural analysis Text analysis Structural analysis Structural analysis 1 1. Divide the text into parts by completing the table. It puts forward the issue of whether or not to have a second child, and mentions parents’ concern whether an only child necessarily means a lonely child. Two common arguments against having only one child in the family are presented.
Structural analysis Text analysis Structural analysis 2 The author cites specific figures and facts to show that despite the disadvantages many parents still choose to have only one child, and he also points out some causes of their decision. The author briefly states the advantages of having a single child.
Structural analysis Text analysis Structural analysis 3 It concludes that there is no simple answer to the question of whether or not to have a second child, and that the important thing, in the end, is to make the decision that a couple both feel confident about.
Structural analysis Text analysis Structural analysis 4 2. Some words used at the beginning of a paragraph make it easier for the reader to understand the coherence of the whole text, such as Another at the beginning of Paragraph 3, Despite ofParagraph 4, and Unfortunately of Paragraph 7. Can you explain how they function?
Structural analysis Text analysis Structural analysis 5 The word “Another” used at the beginning of Paragraph 3 implies that at least one argument has been presented earlier. “Despite these arguments …” prepares readers for something against their expectations, i.e. many parents still choose to have one child although the disadvantages of doing so have just been clearly presented.
Structural analysis Text analysis Structural analysis 5 “Unfortunately” tells readers that there follows something disappointing, i.e. the author fails to provide a definite answer to the questions raised at the beginning of the text.
Detailed reading Is an Only Child a Lonely Child? Detailed reading1 1. Many couples, who already have one healthy, happy child, are facing a dilemma, namely, the issue of whether or not to have a second child. They have demanding jobs and limited time and financial resources, but they are also very keen to ensure that their only child does not become a lonely child. So, what are the pros and cons of having a second child? Is an only child a lonely child? That is what so many couples are very much concerned about and eager to understand.
Detailed reading Detailed reading2 The issue of whether to have a second child is one of the most difficult issues that parents nowadays face. A concern that is often heard with regard to single children is whether one child necessarily means a lonely child. Many single-child parents feel astigma associated with their decision to have only one child. There are no other children in the family for the child to associate with, and this may lead to the child feeling lonelyat times, especially during vacations. 2.
Detailed reading Detailed reading3 Another common argument against having just one child is that an only child may be more spoiled than one with siblings. Many people believe that a single child will not have learned to negotiate with others, and respect the give-and-take involved in many relationships. Some think this may leave the child less capable of interacting well with people his or her own age than one who has been raised with siblings. 3.
Detailed reading Despite these arguments, the number of parents choosing to have only one child is increasing in many parts of the world. In the US, for example, 14 percent of women between 18 and 34 plan to have just one child, and this percentage is expected to rise. The same trend can be seen in the UK. According to the Family Policy Studies Center, the overall number of British children being born each year has declined. In Japan, the average number of children born per family had declined to 1.42 by 1996, while latest statistics cite less than one child. This has led to government concerns about supporting an increasing population of elderly people in the future; it is predicted that, by 2020, a third of the population in Japan will be aged 65 or over. 4. Detailed reading4
Detailed reading Detailed reading5 For some single-child parents, particularly those with busy careers, the pressures of devoting time and energy to a second child can seem too overwhelming, resulting in them electing to have no more children. For other parents, the financial burden of having a second child may be the prime consideration. According to government surveys, many couples in Japan choose not to have large families as the cost of supporting a child up to the age of 18 is estimated to be around 20 million yen, equivalent to around US $160,000. 5.
Detailed reading Detailed reading6 Advocates of single-child families argue that there are advantages for the child as well as the parents. With just one child, they suggest, there is no potential for family arguments arising from favoritism or sibling jealousy. Moreover, with only one child, the parents can give, and the child can receive, more quality time and attention. This often leads to increased self-esteem which, combined with increased independence, can lead to the child being more confident. 6.
Detailed reading Detailed reading7 Unfortunately, there is no simple answer to the question of whether or not to have a second child. The circumstances affecting each set of parents areunique, and what is appropriate for one family may not be for another. The important thing, in the end, is to make a decision that both you and your spouse feel confident about. 7.
Detailed reading • Paragraph 1 • Questions • What is the dilemma that many couples are faced with? Detailed reading1--Quesion The dilemma that many couples are confronted with is whether or not they should have a second child. On one hand, they have demanding jobs and limited time and financial resources; on the other hand, they are also very keen to ensure that their only child does not become a lonely child. So they are plunged into this situation in which it is difficult for them to decide what to do.
Detailed reading Detailed reading1--Quesion Paragraph 1 Questions 2) What is the concern that weighs heavily on the minds of many couples? Many couples are very much concerned about whether an only child necessarily becomes a lonely child.
Detailed reading Detailed reading1--dilemma dilemma n. a situation in which it is difficult to decide what to do, because each choice has its advantages and disadvantages e.g. Many women are faced with the dilemma of choosing between career and family commitments. Collocation: be in a dilemma e.g. I’m in a dilemma about this job offer. 我不知道是接受还是不接受这份工作。
Detailed reading issuen. a subject or problem that is often discussed or argued about Detailed reading1-- issue e.g. Unemployment is not the issue — the real problem is the decline in public morality. I just got a raise, so money’s no longer an issue. Collocation: raise the issue: say that a problem should be discussed e.g. We should raise the issue of discrimination with the council. Synonyms: subject, problem
Detailed reading Detailed reading1-- demanding demanding adj. needing a lot of ability, effort, or skill e.g. Climbing is physically demanding, while studying is mentally demanding. Many people agree that teaching is a demanding profession. Derivation: demand n.& v.
Detailed reading keenadj. interested in sth. or eager to do it Detailed reading1-- keen e.g. John is a keen photographer. Collocations: be keen on sth. e.g. Daniel’s very keen on tennis. be keen to do sth. e.g. She’s out of hospital and keen to get back to work. Synonyms: interested, eager Derivations: keenly ad. keenness n.
Detailed reading Detailed reading1-- concerned 1 concerned adj. worried about something e.g. Concerned parents approached the school about the problem. Collocations: be concerned about e.g. Ross has never been particularly concerned about what other people think of him. be concerned for Rescuers are concerned for the safety of two men trapped in the mine. e.g.
Detailed reading Detailed reading1– concerned 2 be concerned that He’s concerned that he won’t get his money back. e.g. Derivations: concern n.& v. concerning prep.
Detailed reading the pros and cons of having a second child Detailed reading1-- the pros and cons of having a second child Explanation: the pros and cons: the advantages and disadvantages e.g. Before we make a decision, we must weigh up the pros and cons. After hours’ discussion, everybody at the meeting could see clearly the pros and cons of the proposal. Paraphrase: the advantages and disadvantages of having one more child Translation: 生育第二个孩子的利与弊
Detailed reading Detailed reading2—Quesion1 • Paragraph 2 • Questions • What does the writer think of the issue of whether or not to have a second child? The writer thinks that the issue of whether to have a second child is one of the most difficult issues that parents nowadays are confronted with.
Detailed reading Detailed reading2--Quesion 2 Paragraph 2 Questions 2) Why does the writer think that an only child necessarily means a lonely child? As there are no other children in the family for the child to associate with, he may feel lonely at times, especially during vacations.
Detailed reading Detailed reading2-- concern concernn. a feeling of worry about sth. important; sth. that worries you e.g. His main concern is to be able to provide for his family. Collocations: concern about / over e.g. There is growing concern about the effects of pollution on health. concern for sb. e.g. A government spokesman expressed concern for the lives of the hostages.
Detailed reading Detailed reading2-- stigma stigman. a mark of shame or disgrace; a shameful feeling or reputation e.g. There is a strong stigma attached to suicide. In the past divorce and single parenthood carried a stigma. 离异和单亲家庭在过去是令人感到羞耻的事情。
Detailed reading at times sometimes but not usually Detailed reading2-- at times 1 e.g. At times I wonder if it’s worth all the effort. Comparisons: at no time, at all times, at times at no times: used to say strongly that something never happened or should never happen at all times: used especially in official notices or announcements to say what always happens or should always happen
Detailed reading Detailed reading2-- at times 2 Practice: 1) did I tell you that you could use my car. 2) Identification badges must be worn . 3) even the most talented athletes lose their motivation. At no time ____________ at all time ____________ At times __________
Detailed reading sibling n. (fml) a brother or sister Detailed reading3-- sibling e.g. A child with siblings seldom gets lonely. Most young smokers are influenced by their elder siblings’ smoking habits.
Detailed reading Detailed reading3-- negotiate negotiatev. discuss sth. in order to reach an agreement, esp. in business or politics e.g. Union leaders have negotiated an agreement for a shorter working week. Collocation: negotiate with e.g. The government refuses to negotiate with terrorists. Derivations: negotiation n. negotiable adj.
Detailed reading Detailed reading3-- interact interact v. 1) (people) talk to each other and understand each other e.g. He interacts well with other children in the class. 2) (things) have an effect on each other and work together Social and economic factors are interacting to produce a recession. e.g. Derivations: interaction: n. interactive: adj.
Detailed reading Detailed reading2-- Many single-child Many single-child parents feel a stigma associated with their decision to have only one child. Paraphrase: Many single-child families have a strong sense of shame in their decision to have only one child. Translation: 许多只有一个小孩的父母都为自己只生一个小孩的决定感到羞愧。
Detailed reading … this may lead to the child feeling lonely at times, … Detailed reading2-- this may lead Explanation: lead to sb. doing sth.: cause sth. to happen to sb. or cause sb. to do sth. e.g. His actions could lead to him losing his job. Paraphrase: … such a situation will probably result in the child having a sense of loneliness from time to time, … Translation: ……这样一种环境可能经常会让孩子感到孤独,……
Detailed reading Detailed reading3—Quesion1 Paragraph 3 Question What is the main idea of the third paragraph? The third paragraph states and supports another common argument against having just one-child: an only-child may be more spoiled than one with siblings.
Detailed reading Detailed reading3-- Another common1 Another common argument against having just one child is that an only-child may be more spoiled than one with siblings. Explanation: spoil: make sb., esp. a child, selfish from having too much attention or praise Paraphrase: Another reason some people usually hold against having only one child is that an only-child is more likely to be given too much love and care than one that has brothers and/or sisters.
Detailed reading Detailed reading3-- Another common2 Translation: 另外一个常用于反驳只养育一个孩子的理由是：一个孩子获得的溺爱要比那些有兄弟姐妹的孩子多得多。
Detailed reading Detailed reading3-- respect the give-and-take respect the give-and-take involved in many relationships Paraphrase: realize the importance of cooperation and mutual understanding between themselves and other people in various situations Translation: 认识到在各种关系中合作与相互了解的重要性
Detailed reading Paragraph 4 Question What examples and statistics are given to show that more and more parents have decided to have only one child? Detailed reading4—Quesion1 In the US, for example, 14 percent of women between 18 and 34 plan to have just one child, and this percentage is expected to rise. The same trend can be seen in the UK. According to the Family Policy Studies Center, the overall number of British children being born each year has declined. In Japan, the average number of children born per family had declined to 1.42 by 1996, while the latest statistics cite less than one child.
Detailed reading decline: v. Detailed reading4-- decline 1) decrease in quantity or importance e.g. Spending on information technology has declined. 2) become gradually worse in quality e.g. Do you think standards of education have declined in recent years? Synonym: decrease Derivation: decline n.
Detailed reading cite: v. Detailed reading4-- cite 1) mention something as an example, esp. one that supports or explains an idea or a situation e.g. Several factors have been cited as the cause of the student unrest. 2) give the exact words of something that has been written, esp. in order to support an opinion or prove an idea e.g. The writer cited many quotations from different scholars. Synonym: quote Derivation: citation n.
Detailed reading …, 14 percent of women between 18 and 34 plan to have just one child, and this percentage is expected to rise Detailed reading4-- 14 percent of Explanation: Use percent only with a number, e.g. 30 percent, 9 percent, etc. If you mean “an amount expressed as part of a total,” use percentage. e.g. A high percentage of the population was illiterate. Translation: 在18至34岁的女性中，14%的女性希望生育一个孩子，而且这一比例预计会更高。
Detailed reading Detailed reading4-- while latest while latest statistics cite less than one child Paraphrase: while latest statistics show that the average number of children born per family has declined to less than one child Translation: 然而最新的统计数据表明平均每个家庭孩子出生率已经低于一
Detailed reading Paragraph 5 Question What is the main idea of Paragraph 5? Detailed reading5—Quesion1 Paragraph 5 supplies two most typical reasons for the steady increase of the number of parents who have chosen to have only one child.
Detailed reading overwhelming: adj. Detailed reading5-- overwhelming • having such a great effect on you that you feel • confused and at a loss what to do e.g. She felt an overwhelming desire to hug her child. The sheer size of the place seems overwhelming and confusing at first. 2) (numbers, odds, etc.) very large e.g. An overwhelming majority of the members were against the idea. Derivation: overwhelm v.