Cultural information Cultural information Cultural information1 1. Quote Robert Frost: You are educated when you have the ability to listen to almost anything without losing your temper or self-confidence.
Cultural information 2. Education Cultural information2.1 Education in the largest sense is any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character or physical ability of an individual. In its technical sense, education is the process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, skills and values from one generation to another.
Cultural information Teachers in educational institutions direct the education of students and might draw on many subjects, including reading, writing, mathematics, science and history, etc. This process is sometimes called schooling when referring to the education of teaching only a certain subject, usually as professors at institutions of higher learning. There is also education in fields for those who want specific vocational skills, such as those required to be a pilot. In addition, there is an array of education possible at the informal level, such as in museums and libraries, with the Internet and in life experience. Many non-traditional education options are now available and will continue to evolve. Cultural information2.2
Structural analysis Main idea Main idea Global Reading-Text analysis1 • What is this text concerned with? The text is concerned with the five traits of an educated man.
Structural analysis Main idea 2. Summarize briefly the five traits of an educated man expounded in the text. Global Reading-Text analysis2 ＊Correctness and precision in the use of the mother tongue ＊Refined and gentle manners ＊The power and habit of reflection ＊The power of growth ＊Possession of efficiency
Structural analysis Main idea Structural analysis Structural analysis 1 1. Work out the structure of the text by completing the table. Paragraph(s) Event It raises the question directly related to the topic of the essay: the relationship between learning and education. 1 It expounds the five key traits of an educated man respectively. 2-6
Structural analysis Main idea Structural analysis 2 Paragraph(s) Event 7 The writer stresses that given these five traits, one possesses the outline or framework of an educated man, and that the outline may be filled in by whatever knowledge, ability, or skill that one is in possession of.
Structural analysis Main idea Structural analysis 2 2. How are the paragraphs that comprise the body of the essay organized and developed? These paragraphs are all organized and developed by the deductive method.
Detailed reading Five Traits of the Educated Man Nicholas Murray Butler Detailed reading1 1 A question often asked is: “What are the marks of an educated man?” It is plain that one may gain no inconsiderable body of learning in some special field of knowledge without at the same time acquiring those habits and traits which are the marks of an educated gentleman. A reasonable amount of learning must of course accompany an education, but, after all, that amount need not be so very great in any one field. An education will make its mark and find its evidences in certain traits, characteristics, and capacities which have to be acquired by patient endeavor, by following good examples, and by receiving wise discipline and sound instruction.
Detailed reading 2 These traits or characteristics may be variously described and classified, but among them are five that should always stand out clearly enough to be seen by all men. The first of these is correctness and precision in the use of the mother tongue. The quite shocking slovenliness and vulgarity of much of the spoken English, as well as not a little of the written English, which one hears and sees, proves beyond doubt that years of attendance upon schools and colleges that are thought to be respectable have produced no impression. When one hears English well spoken, with pure diction, correct pronunciation, and an almost unconscious choice of the right word, he recognizes it at once. How much easier he finds it to imitate English of the other sort! Detailed reading2
Detailed reading A second and indispensable trait of the educated man is refined and gentle manners, which are themselves the expression of fixed habits of thought and action. “Manners make the man,” wrote William of Wykeham over his gates at Winchester and at Oxford. He pointed to a great truth. When manners are superficial, artificial, and forced, no matter what their form, they are bad manners. When, however, they are the natural expression of fixed habits of thought and action, and when they reveal a refined and cultivated nature, Detailed reading3.1 3
Detailed reading they are good manners. There are certain things that gentlemen do not do, and they do not do them simply because they are bad manners. The gentleman instinctively knows the difference between those things which he may and should do and those things which he may not and should not do. A third trait of the educated man is the power and habit of reflection. Human beings for the most part live wholly on the surface of life. They do not look beneath the surface or far beyond the present moment and that part of the future which is quickly to follow it. Detailed reading3.2-4 4
Detailed reading They do not read those works of prose and poetry which have become classic because they reveal the power and habit of reflection and induce that power and habit in others. When one reflects long enough to ask the question how?, he is on the way to knowing something about science. When he reflects long enough to ask the question why?, he may, if he persists, even become a philosopher. Detailed reading4.2
Detailed reading A fourth trait of the educated man is the power of growth. He continues to grow and develop from birth to his dying day. His interests expand, his contacts multiply, his knowledge increases, and his reflection becomes deeper and wider. It would appear to be true that not many human beings, and even not many of those who have had a college education, continue to grow after they are twenty-four or twenty-five years of age. By that time it is usual to settle down to life on a level of more or less contented intellectual interest and activity. The whole present-day movement for adult education is a systematic and definite attempt to keep human beings growing long after they have left school and college, and, therefore, to help educate them. 5 Detailed reading5
Detailed reading Detailed reading6 A fifth trait of the educated man is his possession of efficiency, or the power to do. The mere visionary dreamer, however charming or however wise, lacks something which an education requires. The power to do may be exercised in any one of a thousand ways, but when it clearly shows itself, that is evidence that the period of study, of discipline, and of companionship with parents and teachers has not been in vain. 6
Detailed reading Given these five characteristics, one has the outline of an educated man. That outline may be filled in by scholarship, by literary power, by mechanical skills, by professional zeal and capacity, by business competence, or by social and political leadership. So long as the framework or outline is there, the content may be pretty much what you will, assuming, of course, that the fundamental elements of the great tradition which is civilization, and its outstanding records and achievements in human personality, in letters, in science, in the fine arts, and in human institutions, are all present. 7 Detailed reading7
Detailed reading Paragraph 1 • Questions • What do you think of the question raised at the very beginning? Detailed reading1—Question The question put forward at the very beginning is an important one. It immediately attracts the readers’ attention and starts the readers' thinking about its answer. 2) What is the main idea of the first paragraph? With a topic-related question, the paragraph points out the relationship between learning and the marks of an educated man, between learning and education, and between education and certain traits and capacities which have to be gained by conscious effort.
Detailed reading Detailed reading—trait trait:n. a particular quality, esp. of a person; characteristic e.g. Ann’s generosity is one of her most pleasing personal traits. Synonyms: character, feature, characteristic, attribute, property
Detailed reading • capacity: n. • ability or power • 2) role; a particular position or duty • 3) the maximum amount that sth. can hold or contain Detailed reading-capacity 1 e.g. He has a great capacity for enjoying himself. Her capacity to remember facts is remarkable. e.g. He said that in the capacity as mayor. 他是以市长的身份说那番话的。 e.g. The lift has a capacity of 15 persons.
Detailed reading Synonyms: Detailed reading-capacity 2 1) ability, power, capability, talent, gift 2) role, function, position 3) maximum content, limit, room, space
Detailed reading inconsiderable: adj. rather small; not worth considering The word “inconsiderable” is almost always used together with the word “not” or “no”, an example of double negation for strong emphasis. Detailed reading–inconsiderable1 e.g. He has built up a not inconsiderable business empire. He is starting to gain a not inconsiderable fame in the entertainment circles. Antonym: considerable
Detailed reading Comparisons: Detailed reading–inconsiderable2 inconsiderate: not caring about the feelings, needs, or comfort of other people; thoughtless inconsiderable: rather small; not worth considering unconsidered: not thought about, or not thought about with enough care Practice: 1) 2) 3) I came to regret my remarks. It is very of you not to call your mother when she got sick. We have spent a not amount of money on the project already. unconsidered ___________ inconsiderate ____________ inconsiderable _____________
Detailed reading endeavor: 1) n. (an) effort 2) vi. (fml) try very hard, strive Detailed reading–endeavor1 e.g. Please make every endeavor to arrive on time. e.g. We always endeavor to please our customers. Synonyms: try, strive, attempt
Detailed reading Translation: Detailed reading–endeavor2 We have created a splendid Chinese civilization by making every endeavor over five thousand years. I will endeavor to do my best for my country. 我们经过了五千多年的不懈奋斗，创造了灿烂的中华文明。 我会竭尽全力报效祖国。
Detailed reading It is plain that one may gain no inconsiderable body of learning in some special field of knowledge without at the same time acquiring those habits and traits which are the marks of an educated gentleman. (Paragraph 1) Detailed reading—S_ It is plain that…1 Explanation: “No inconsiderable” means fairly large or important. The word “inconsiderable” is often used with “not”. He has built up a not inconsiderable business empire. Paraphrase: It is obvious that, on one hand, one may gain considerable knowledge in some special field; on the other hand, fail to acquire the decent behavior of an educated gentleman.
Detailed reading Translation: Detailed reading—S_ It is plain that…2 显而易见的是，人可以在某一特殊的知识领域获得许多的知识，但却不一定能同时具备受过教育的绅士所拥有的习惯和特征。
Detailed reading Activity: Sentence Making. Detailed reading-Activity Make sentences by using trait, capacity, inconsiderable, and endeavor.
Detailed reading Paragraphs 2-6 Detailed reading6--Question Question Do you agree that the five traits of an educated man expounded in the text are the most important characteristics of an educated man? Justify your answer. This is an open question. If you do, most probably it is because these five traits are the basic marks of an educated man that are acknowledged almost by all.
Detailed reading vulgarity: n. the state or quality of being indecent where the quality is spoiled, or the standard is lowered; the state that shows a lack of good judgment in the choice of what is suitable or beautiful Detailed reading–vulgarity e.g. She was angry at the vulgarity of their jokes. His vulgarity made him unwelcome in my home. Derivations: vulgar adj． vulgarize: v. vulgarization: n．
Detailed reading • respectable: adj. • showing standards of behavior, appearance, etc. that are socially acceptable • 2) good or satisfactory; decent Detailed reading–respectable1 e.g. It is not respectable to get drunk in the street. Put a tie on — it’ll make you look more respectable. e.g. Her exam results were respectable enough. Derivations: respect: v. respectability: n.
Detailed reading Comparison: respectable, respectful, respective Detailed reading–respectable2 respectable: showing standards of behavior, appearance, etc. that are socially acceptable respectful: feeling or showing respect respective: used before a plural noun to refer to the different things that belong to each separate person or thing mentioned Translation: 观光旅客回到各自的国家去。 The tourists went back to their respective countries.
Detailed reading Translation: Detailed reading–respectable3 那位妇人恭敬地保持着沉默。 The woman kept a respectful silence. 你的衣服看起来很讲究，很体面。 Your clothes look proper and respectable.
Detailed reading • superficial: adj. • of little subsistence or significance • 2) being or affecting or connecting with a surface; not deep or penetrating emotionally or intellectually • 3) relating to a surface Detailed reading–superficial1 e.g. He made only a few superficial changes in the manuscript. e.g. Despite their superficial similarities, the two novels are in fact very different. e.g. Superficial scratches can be easily removed. 表面上的划痕很容易就能被清除。
Detailed reading Derivation: Detailed reading–superficial2 superficiality n.
Detailed reading artificial: adj. insincere; lacking true feelings; happening as a result of human action Detailed reading–artificial e.g. She welcomed me with an artificial smile. I don’t like his artificial manners. High import taxes give their homemade goods an artificial advantage in the market.
Detailed reading reveal:vt. 1) make known sth. previously secret or unknown Detailed reading– reveal e.g. The investigation has revealed some serious faults in the system. I can now reveal that the new director is to be James Johnson. 2) show something that was previously hidden e.g. The curtains opened, revealing a darkened stage. Collocation: reveal yourself as/to be sth. e.g. The violinist revealed himself as a talented interpreter of classical music. Derivation: revealing adj.
Detailed reading cultivated: adj. 1) showing good education, manners, etc. Detailed reading– cultivated1 e.g. As soon as the singer sang a very beautiful song, the cultivated audience stood up, cheering and clapping their hands. 2) Cultivated land is land that is used for growing crops or plants. e.g. cultivated fields 3) Cultivated crops or plants are ones grown by people. e.g. cultivated mushrooms
Detailed reading Translation: Detailed reading– cultivated2 He was a cultivated man, widely reading in several languages. 他是个有教养的人，对几种文字涉猎甚广。 Protecting cultivated land is always the foundation for increased grain production. 保护耕地始终是增加粮食产量的基础。
Detailed reading Derivations: Detailed reading– cultivated3 cultivate: v. cultivation: n. cultivable: adj. cultivator: n. Synonym: well-educated
Detailed reading instinctively: adv. in a way resulting from one’s instinct, i.e. one’s natural ability or tendency to act in a certain way; in a manner following one’s instinct Detailed reading-instinctively e.g. Instinctively, I knew she was ill. 凭直觉，我知道她病了。 I instinctively raised my arm to protect my face. 我本能地抬起手臂护脸。 Derivations: instinctive: adj. instinct: n.
Detailed reading induce: vt. 1) lead sb. to do sth., often by persuading Detailed reading–induce e.g. Nothing could induce her to be disloyal to her motherland. Advertisements induce people to buy. 2) cause or produce e.g. Doctors said that surgery could induce a heart attack. It’s fair to say that cell phones can induce laziness. Derivation: inducement: n.
Detailed reading multiply:v. 1) greatly increase in number or amount Detailed reading—multiply1 e.g. Smoking multiplies the risk of heart attacks and other health problems. 2) breed, procreate, reproduce e.g. Bacteria multiply quickly in warm food. Synonyms: intensify, increase, spread, extend Anonyms: decrease, diminish
Detailed reading Derivations: Detailed reading—multiply2 multiple: adj． multiplication: n. multiplicity: n.
Detailed reading efficiency: n. the power to work well, very quickly and without waste; the power to do well Detailed reading--efficiency1 e.g. She is well known for her possession of high efficiency. We must achieve efficiency in our study. Antonym: inefficiency Derivation: efficient: adj.
Detailed reading Comparison: effective, efficient Detailed reading—efficiency2 effective: successful, and working in the way that was intended e.g. Training is often much less effective than expected. Practice: 1) 2) A good leader should be both competent and Her efforts to improve the school have been very . efficient ________. effective ________
Detailed reading • visionary: adj. • existing only in the mind and probably can not be • fulfilled Detailed reading--visionary e.g. Most plans for bringing about world peace are visionary. 2) having clear ideas of what the world should be like in the future e.g. Under his visionary leadership, the city prospered. Synonyms: idealistic, unreal, imaginary Antonyms: practical, realistic, real Derivation: vision: n.
Detailed reading exercise: vt. 1) (cause to) take exercise Detailed reading--exercise e.g. You are getting fat; you should exercise more. It’s important to exercise regularly. 2) use (a power, right, or quality) e.g. There are plans to encourage people to exercise their right to vote. That official exercises his power to the fullest degree. Synonyms: practice, employ, apply, exert Antonym: inaction
Detailed reading companionship: n. friendship; close relationship between partners Detailed reading--companionship e.g. The companionship between the two partners can be said to be pure and noble. When Stan died, I missed his companionship. Synonym: fellowship Derivation: companion: n. someone you spend a lot of time with, especially a friend
Detailed reading The quite shocking slovenliness and vulgarity of much of the spoken English, as well as not a little of the written English, which one hears and sees, proves beyond peradventure that years of attendance upon schools and colleges that are thought to be respectable have produced no impression. (Paragraph2) Detailed reading—S_ The quite shocking…1 Explanation: “Slovenliness and vulgarity of much of the spoke English” indicates foul, blunt, tasteless, and even ungrammatical language found in much of oral English.