Part 1Culture: An Overview Erich Baumgartner, PhD Andrews University
ModuleOverview Culture – An Overview Culture and Communication Cultural Dimensions Applying Intercultural Insights • Conflict • Money Matters Developing Bridges Resources for Further Study
Why Learn About Other Cultures? God created diversity God is intentional about reaching out to the those who are different/on the margin • The poor • The stranger/alien • Those who are discriminated against by us God respects/celebrates cultural differences God charged the church (also a culture) to reach all cultures Matthew 28:19-20; Rev. 14:6-7
Why Learn About Other Cultures? Example: USA, A Nation of Immigrants 34 million immigrants 1.5 million / year (+750,000 babies) 12% of the US population 2/3 of US population growth 18% poor ( versus 11% in the population) 1/3 have no health insurance
More Reasons . . . Being yourself is no longer enough To be effective as a leader Working with diverse teams Be sensitive to customers from another culture Essential for leaders of the SDA church.
A Cultural Mistake Advertisement in Mexico: It won’t leak in your pocket and EMBARASS you! ? ? ? EMBARAZAR ? ? ?
Learning Goals Build on your experiences Learn to read cultural cues Lead multicultural teams Increase intercultural sensitivity
The Culturally Diverse Me Task A: How do you identify yourself to others? Write in as many squares as you can a word that identifies an important way you are known to others: e.g.: Adventist, Christian, African-American, Democrat, director, mother, brother, . . . . Share your circles with your learning partners.
Above & Below the Surface Take a look at the list in your notebook and place them above the waterline (A) or below the waterline (B). A B
Onstage & Backstage Culture Onstage The “what” of culture What you see Backstage The “why” of culture The meaning behind what you see What you see may not be what you think it is
What is Culture? A “cultured” person “He is a cultured person” Implies that ordinary persons have “no culture” The total way a people thinks and lives The software of the mind Different from human nature or personality.
Culture . . . Individual Group All
A Definition The more or less integrated systems of ideas, feelings, and values and their associated patterns of behavior and products shared by a group of people who organize and regulate what they think, feel, and do (P. Hiebert, 1985, 30). Culture is to a group as personality is to a person.
Stereotypes Heaven • The cooks are French • The mechanics are German • The lovers are Italian • The police are British • And it’s all organized by the Swiss Hell • The cooks are British • The mechanics are French • The lovers are Swiss • The police are German • And it’s all organized by the Italians
Learning Task Give an example of an Adventist behavior that is learned, shared by the group, and integrated into deeper cultural values and beliefs.
Implications of the Culture Concept for Ministry Culture is a way of life that pervades everything Culture is a holistic system Culture provides meaning and identity Culture makes communication possible People feel comfortable with their own culture Culture is deeply ingrained in what feels normal to us
Think about the Story of The Monkey What was the monkey’s motivation? How would you described the monkey as he went out on a precarious limb to “help” the fish? Why did the monkey help the fish by taking it out of the water?
Think about the Story of The Monkey (cont.) What did the monkey assume about fish culture? How do you think the fish felt about the help it received? What advice would you give the monkey for further situations where he would like to help?
Universal or Cultural Truths? 1. People should always strive to arrive at the appointed time. 2. It is best to tell a person if they have offended you. 3. Women should not wear makeup. 4. It is rude to accept an offer if only asked once. 5. It is better to be rich than to be poor. 6. One should choose one’s own spouse.
Universal or Cultural Truths? (cont.) 7. Polite men will allow women to walk through doorways first. 8. Being a good citizen means agreeing with your country’s leaders. 9. Individuals have the right to make decisions about their future, regardless of what the family wants. 10. Good children will agree with their parents. Answers: All are culturally conditioned
Part 2Culture & Communication Erich W. Baumgartner, PhD Andrews University
Triangle of Meaning Based on Ogden & Richards in Tuleja, 2005, 29)
Learning Task: Friendship Use as least three types of symbols to communicate acceptance or friendship in your culture.
Learning Task: Friendship Symbol systems:
Communication Model Evaluative S R Cognitive Affective
Task: Nonverbal Codes Give an example of nonverbal code you used today (see page 16) Which ones do you use often? Which ones do you not use?
Your Own Body Language What do my nonverbals say? How might I be perceived by someone of another cultural background? Do I match the stereotype of people of my country? How can I check when I suspect that my body language is being misinterpreted? —Prince & Hoppe, 2000, 16
Static or Noise German Coast Guard Video YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SmSAGAuvH6Y
Discomfort Clues “Why doesn’t she just say yes or no?” “Why is he always staring at me like that?” “Why doesn’t she tell me if she doesn’t understand something?” “Why does he sit there smiling when I am talking about his performance problems?” “Why does he make a joke out of everything?”
How Well Do You Know Yourself? In cultures with high Power Distance, leaders often get disconnected from their followers The “ivory tower” phenomenon There are areas others see but that are hidden to yourself These things may be undermining the effectiveness of your leadership How can you get insights into your blind spots?
Johari Window Known to Self Unknown to Self BLIND SPOT OPEN AREA Known to Others HIDDEN AREA UNKNOWN AREA Unknown to Others
Reading Cultural Differences What do I know about this person’s culture? Do I take the time to understand where this person is “coming from”? Do I pay attention to words and body language? Do I listen for feelings and unvoiced questions? Do I clarify and confirm what I have heard? Do I check to make sure the other person has fully understood what I said? —Prince & Hoppe, 2000, 14
The Great Debate Listen to the following story of the debate between the Pope and Moishe…
Part 3Culture Dimensions Erich W. Baumgartner, PhD Andrews University
Learning Framework 1 • Context Low High Identity Collectivistic Individualistic Outlook on Life Being Doing Rules Particular Universal
Learning Framework 2 • Change Opportunity Threat Time Fluid Fixed Life Space Large Public Large Personal Authority Ascribed Achieved
Learning Framework 3 • Power Distance Low High Environment Harmony Control Learning Action Observation Logic Contextual Binary
Context: Where Are We? Low Context Cultures Explicit messages Overt Speaker is responsible Visible reactions Direct & informal style Compartmentalization Assertiveness Sees high context cultures as chaotic & unreliable
Context: Where Are We? High Context Cultures Meaning in the context Covert, nonverbal codes Listener assumes responsibility Reserved reactions Indirect & formal style Holistic perspective Verbal reticence, silence Sees low context as inefficient, can get impatient with step by step
Collectivism We Groups achieve Decision by group/organization Cooperation & teamwork Identity: Who Am I? Individualism I Personal achievement Individual decision Competition WE I
Saving Face Dave Barry (American humorist): Interpreting certain key English phrases made by Japanese: • Statement: I see. • Actual Meaning: No. • Ah. • No. • Ah-hah. • No. • Yes. • No. • That is difficult. • Completely impossible. • That is very interesting. • This is really stupid. —From Tuleja, 2005, 45
How to Avoid Loss of Face Don’t ask questions to force people to admit a mistake Listen for the answer to yes/no questions Pay attention to cultural etiquette Be complementary Show respect Do not ask questions implying that the other is in need
Particular Rules We have obligations Exceptions are the rule Rule driven is corrupt They can’t be trusted; they would not even help a friend Rules: How Do They Apply? Universal Rules Applies to all Few exceptions Rule bending is corrupt They can’t be trusted, because they always help their friends
The Dilemma You are riding in a car driven by a close friend. He hits a pedestrian. You know he was going at least 35 miles per hour in an area of the city where the maximum allowed speed is 20 miles per hour. There are no witnesses. His lawyer says that if you testify under oath that he was only driving 20 miles per hour it may save him from serious consequences. What right has your friend to expect that you would protect him? —Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner, 1998
Learning Task: The Dilemma Your response: Check if you would testify • ____ A definite right to expect that I would testify ____ Some right ____ No right ____ Yes, I would ____ No, I would not
Universalists: “As the seriousness of the accident increases, the obligation to help their friend decreases.” Particularists: “My friend needs my help more than ever now that he is in serious trouble with the law.” Universalist stance more common in protestant cultures. Catholic cultures seem to be more relational and more particularist.