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Physical Education. Final Exam Review Session. Fitness Review:. The Five Health- Related Fitness Components are:. Cardiovascular Muscular Strength Muscular Endurance Flexibility Body Composition. Cardiovascular:.

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Physical education

Physical Education

Final Exam

Review Session

The five health related fitness components are
The Five Health- Related Fitness Components are:

  • Cardiovascular

  • Muscular Strength

  • Muscular Endurance

  • Flexibility

  • Body Composition


  • The ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the muscles for an extended period of time.

    • Aerobic activity – steady activity in which the heart can supply all the oxygen the muscles need (ex. jogging, walking, cycling, aerobics, swimming)

    • Anaerobic activity – physical activity done in short, fast bursts in which the heart cannot supply blood and oxygen as fast as muscles use it (weight lifting, sprints, football, volleyball)

    • Fitness Tests – PACER, mile run

Muscular strength
Muscular Strength:

  • The ability of a muscle group to apply a maximal force against a resistance one time.

  • Fitness tests: push-ups

Muscular endurance
Muscular Endurance:

  • The ability of a muscle to perform continued contractions.

  • Fitness tests: curl-ups


  • The range of motion around a joint.

    • Static – slow, maintained stretch

    • Ballistic – bouncing stretch, places

    • Decreases individual’s risk for injury

  • Fitness tests: sit & reach, trunk flexion, shoulder flexion

Body composition
Body Composition:

  • The ratio of lean body mass (muscle, bone, ligaments and tendons, etc.) to fat mass in the body.

  • Working the other 4 health related fitness components will develop your body composition

Bonus the 6 skill related fitness components
Bonus: The 6 Skill-Related Fitness Components:

  • Reaction time - Time it takes to react to a particular stimulus

  • Power - Ability to perform a maximum effort in a short amount of time.

  • Balance -Ability to remain in control of body while in different positions.

Bonus the 6 skill components con t
Bonus: The 6 Skill Components Con’t

  • Coordination - Ability to perform complex motor skills with a degree of ease and grace.

  • Speed - Ability to cover a short distance in as short as time as possible.

  • Agility - Ability to maintain speed while changing directions.

Personal fitness principles
Personal Fitness Principles:

  • Principle of Progression

  • Principle of Overload

    • FITT Principle

  • Principle of Variety

  • Principle of Recovery

  • Principle of Specificity

  • Principle of Regularity

Principle of progression
Principle of Progression:

  • The intensity and/or duration of exercise must be gradually increased to improve fitness.

Principle of overload
Principle of Overload:

  • The work of each session must exceed normal demands placed on the body in order to bring out training effect.

  • Otherwise known as the FITT Principle

Fitt principle
FITT Principle

  • Frequency

    • How often you exercise

  • Intensity

    • How hard you exercise

  • Time

    • How long you exercise

  • Type

    • Type of exercise performed

Principle of variety
Principle of Variety

  • Variety is the key to a lasting program because it relieves boredom and increases motivation and progress.

    • Your muscle cells “memory cells” will stop growing if you don’t shock them occasionally with change in your routine

Principle of recovery
Principle of Recovery

  • Alternating muscle groups every other day, or alternating hard and easy days for each component of fitness allows muscle repair and growth.

    • Recovery can help avoid burn-out and injury

Principle of specificity
Principle of Specificity:

  • Training must be geared toward specific goals

    • training is extraordinarily specific in its effect, training for one muscle group or movement pattern does not transfer to other muscles groups or movement patterns.

Principle of regularity
Principle of Regularity:

  • At least three balanced workouts a week are necessary to maintain a desirable level of fitness.

    • “use it or lose it”

  • The Center for Disease Control recommends that adolescents’ participate in moderate to vigorous activity for 60 minutes daily.

Target heart rate
Target Heart Rate

  • A specific age-based pulse rate to be maintained during aerobic exercise to ensure optimal cardiovascular function

  • 65-85 percent of the maximum heart rate, results in greatest cardiovascular benefits from exercise.

Target heart rate1
Target Heart Rate:

  • Target heart rate zone is determined by the following formula:

    • 220 – your age = maximum heart rate (MHR)

    • MHR – your resting heart rate* x .65 = lower limit of your target heart rate zone

    • MHR – your resting heart rate* x .85 = upper limit of your target heart rate zone

    • *Resting heart rate is your heart rate taken after at least 30 minutes of rest, best if taken right after waking in the morning before getting out of bed.


  • Treating your teammates, classmates and those you play against like you would want to be treated.

  • Being a gracious winner and a gracious loser

  • Keeping the activity fair, respectful and fun for all.



  • A ball game played between two teams of six players. The object of the game is to use any part of the body above the waist to send the ball over a net within the boundaries of the court, so that the opposing team is unable to return it or prevent it from hitting the ground. Points are scored for successful actions by a serving team, and these points make up a set.

Team sports volleyball
Team Sports:Volleyball


  • Bump/Forearm Pass-one of the six basic volleyball skills. It is a ball-handling skill that a player uses to legally contact the ball at a level below the waist using the forearm as the contact surface.

  • Spike/Attack -attempt by one team to terminate the play by hitting the ball to the floor on the opponent’s side.

  • Serve- skill used to put the ball into play.

  • Set -a type of touch that enables the setter direct the volleyball to an attacker.

  • Rotation -after a side out, when the team moves clockwise around the court to cycle through the serving position

  • Side out - serving team fails to score or plays the ball illegally, opponent wins serve.

Team sports volleyball1
Team Sports:Volleyball

Vocab con’t:

  • Rally -the time after the serve when the ball is in play; ends with a point or side out

  • Free Ball - this happens when the other team passes the ball over the net instead of spiking it for a kill

  • Block - adefensive play above the net by one or more players, which attempts to intercept or channel a spiked ball.

  • Serve - initial contact between a ball and player to begin play, can be underhand or over hand.

  • Setter - the second passer whose job it is to give a hittable overhead pass to a spiker

  • Spike - to jump and hit the ball with maximum force toward the opponent's floor, also called attack

Team sports volleyball2
Team Sports:Volleyball

Rules of play:

  • A coin toss determines the choice of ends and right to serve. The team changes ends at the start of each game.

  • When the ball is served the players of both teams must be standing in two rows of three- the front-line of players at the net, the back-line of players behind them anywhere on the court.

  • When there is a change of service the players of the team that is to serve rotate one position clockwise before serving.

  • Players must serve in the correct order of rotation; otherwise the team loses the service and all points scored while the wrong person was serving.

  • If a served ball hits the net but crosses into the opponent's court, it is legally in play.

  • The player’s order of rotation must remain constant until the end of the game

Team sports volleyball3
Team Sports:Volleyball

Scoring System:

  • Rally Scoring: where a point is awarded at the end of each play. You do not need to serve in order to earn a point. Games are played to 25 points, must win by two.

  • Sideout (Traditional) Scoring: Only the serving team may score a point. Games are played to 15 points, must win by two.

Lifetime sports team sports
Lifetime Sports & Team Sports

  • Lifetime Sports review

    Slides 28 – 41

  • Team Sports review

    Slides 42 – 48

Lifetime sports badminton
Lifetime Sports:Badminton

  • The object of the game is to hit the shuttlecock back and forth over a net without permitting it to hit the floor in bounds on your side of the net.

Lifetime sports badminton1
Lifetime Sports:Badminton


  • Shuttlecock – official name for the “birdie”, the projectile of badminton.

  • Rally – an exchange of shots while the shuttle is in play.

  • Smash – a hard hit overhead shot which forces the shuttle down sharply – it is the chief attacking stroke of badminton

  • Drop Shot– a shot his softly with finesse to fall rapidly and close to the net on the opponent’s side.

Lifetime sports badminton2
Lifetime Sports:Badminton


  • Only the server or serving team can score a point.

  • Must be an underhand, below the waist, stroke.

  • If a server’s score is even, he/she serves from the right service box. If a server’s score is odd, he/she serves from the left service box.

  • A player continues service until he she loses the point, changing service courts so that he serves to each opponent in turn, service then rotate to opposing team

  • In doubles service rotates between all four players

Lifetime sports badminton3
Lifetime Sports:Badminton

  • Scoring System:

    • A match consists of the best of 3 games of 21 points.

    • A point is scored on each serve

    • At 20 all, the side which gains a 2 point lead first, wins that game.

  • Net Violations:

    • A player cannot reach over the net to contact the shuttle.

    • A player can contact the shuttle on their side of the net and follow through over the net but cannot touch the net.

Lifetime sports pickleball
Lifetime Sports:Pickleball

  • The object of the game is to score points by successfully hitting a 3" diameter plastic ball (that is perforated with holes (commonly known as a whiffle-ball) across the net without it being successfully returned by the opponent(s).

Lifetime sports pickleball1
Lifetime Sports:Pickleball


  • Volley – to hit the ball in the air before it bounces on the court

  • Non-volley zone – 7 foot area on either side of the net in which a player may not step into to play a ball before it bounces or on the follow-through of a stroke

  • Fault – serve which lands out of bounds or court area

Lifetime sports pickleball2
Lifetime Sports:Pickleball


  • The serve is made underhand with paddle below the waist and both feet behind the baseline

  • The server must hit the ball in the air on the serve; he/she is not allowed to bounce it, then hit it.

  • The serve starting on the right side is made diagonally cross-court and must clear the non-volley zone.

  • At the start of each new game, the first serving team is allowed only one fault before giving up the ball to the opponents.

  • Thereafter, both members of each team will serve and fault before the ball is turned over to the opposing team.

Lifetime sports pickleball3
Lifetime Sports:Pickleball

Service for doubles:

  • When the serving team makes it first fault, players will stay in the same court and the second partner will then serve.

  • When the serving team wins a point, its players will switch courts and the same player will continue to serve.

  • •When the serving team makes its second fault, it will stay in the same court and turn the ball over to the other team.

  • •Players switch courts only after scoring.

Lifetime sports pickleball4
Lifetime Sports:Pickleball

Double-Bounce Rule

  • Each team must play its first shot off the bounce.

  • The receiving team must let the serve bounce, and the serving team must let the return of the serve bounce before playing it.

  • After the two bounces have occurred, the ball can be either volleyed or played off the bounce.

    Scoring System:

  • If the receiving team faults, then a point is scored by the serving team.

  • Can only score a point when serving

Lifetime sports pickleball5
Lifetime Sports:Pickleball

  • Scoring System:

    • A game is played to 11 points and a team must win by at least 2 points.

    • Points are lost by hitting the ball out of bounds, hitting the net, stepping into the non-volley zone and volleying the ball, or by volleying the ball before the ball has bounced on each side of the net

    • If the receiving team faults, then a point is scored by the serving team.

    • Can only score a point when serving

Lifetime sports weight room
Lifetime Sports:Weight Room


  • Rep.: the number of times an exercise is performed in succession

  • Set: a fixed number of repetitions of an exercise

  • Muscle balance: maintaining a natural strength ration berween opposing muscle groups

  • Full-range movement: exercising a muscle from a position of full extension to full flexion

  • Maximum workload: your best effort for one repetition of an exercise

  • Isometric exercises – (static exercises) muscles contract but the body parts do not move (ex. wall sit)

  • Isotonic exercises – (dynamic exercises) muscles contract and body parts move (ex. push-ups, sit-ups, weight/resistance training)

Lifetime sports weight room1
Lifetime Sports:Weight Room

Vocab con’t

  • “Positive” or concentric phase-the lifting phase that requires work or exertion by either pushing or pulling. When this happens your muscles contract. When doing the Biceps Curl, for example, the concentric phase (positive) is when you lift the weight up towards your chest.

  • “Negative” or eccentric phase -the resistance phase whereby you slowly allow the weight to return to its original position. When this happens, your muscles lengthen. For example, in the Biceps Curl, the eccentric phase(negative) is when you slowly lower the weight back down until your arms are extended straight. During this phase you should always move more slowly than on the positive phase

Lifetime sports weight room2
Lifetime Sports:Weight Room

Weight Lifting Techniques and Safety Tips:

  • Breathe - Don’t hold your breath. When you lift, exhale on the lift and inhale on the return movement.

  • Always use spotters.

  • Learn and use proper form to prevent injury. Remember to stretch in the warm up and cool down to prevent stiffness, injury and maintain

  • Don’t rush. Don’t jerk the weight up. Lift and lower the weight in a slow, controlled fashion. This helps you improve body stabilization, isolates the muscles you want to work effectively, and doesn’t let you cheat by relying on momentum to lift the weight.

Lifetime sports weight room3
Lifetime Sports:Weight Room

Weight Lifting Techniques, Safety Tips Con’t:

  • Exercise through the full range of motion, with emphasis on the end of the positive phase. Training in the full range of motion enhances both muscle strength and joint flexibility

  • Rest. Give your body a day to recover between workouts of the same muscle group

  • Be consistent. Three workouts a week will build muscles and just two will maintain the strength you’ve gained.

Team sports angleball
Team Sports:Angleball

  • Agame for many participants divided into two teams. The goal is to knock the ball from the opposing team’s standard.

  • Origin: The Pennsylvania State University by Head Football coach Rip Engle in the 1960’s Invented as an aerobic workout for off-season football players.

  • Field of Play: no set dimensions

Team sports angleball1
Team Sports:Angleball

Scoring System:

  • a point is scored when a team throws a ball at the standard of the other team and successfully knocks the ball off the stand.

    Rules of play/Key Terms:

  • Choice of ends is up to team players and the game is started by a “jump ball” in the center of the playing field or from a designated goalie (determined by rocks, paper scissors, or team that wears pennies)

  • You can tag the person with the ball and the tagged player has three seconds to throw the ball to a teammate.

  • When a point is scored the game starts again with another “jump ball” or scored on teams goalie.

Team sports basketball
Team Sports:Basketball

  • A non-contact game for two teams of five players. The object of the game is to score more points than the opposing team in the allotted time. The ball may be passed, thrown, rolled, or dribbled but may not be carried or kicked deliberately. Throwing the ball into the appropriate basket scores points.

Team sports basketball1
Team Sports:Basketball


  • Dribbling - the means by which a player can move the ball on the court. A player is entitled to dribble each time he gains control of the ball, but it is a violation to make a second consecutive dribble (double dribble).

  • Foul- infraction of the rules that involves personal contact with an opponent or unsportsmanlike conduct. A player who has committed five fouls must automatically leave the game.

  • Free throw -an unhindered shot for a goal (basket) from a position directly behind the free throw line. Free throws are awarded to the opposing team as penalties for fouls

  • Turnover -when a player loses the ball to the other team

Team sports basketball2
Team Sports:Basketball

Vocab Con’t

  • Traveling - when a player walks with the ball

  • Steal -to intercept a pass or take the ball away from an opposing dribbler

  • Key -the area under each basket marked by the rectangle on the floor. The offensive players may only be in that area for 3 seconds, unless the ball is shot.

  • Assist – a pass that directly helps a player score a basket

  • Man-to-Man-the type defense where one person plays defense against one opposing player.

  • Zone- atype of defense where a defensive player covers a certain area or zone, and they play defense against the players that come into that zone.

Team sports basketball3
Team Sports:Basketball

Rules of play:

  • Game consists of two halves with an interval within each half.

  • At the start, teams choose an end and change at half time. Each haft starts with a center jump at center court.

  • Three-second rule-no offensive player may remain in his opponent’s restricted area, between end line and free throw line (the key).

  • If a ball goes out of bounds a throw is awarded to the opposing team of the team that last touched the ball.

Team sports basketball4
Team Sports:Basketball

Scoring System:

  • a goal is scored when a live ball enters a basket from above and stays in or passes through.

    • Goal from the field court = 2 points

    • free throws (foul shot)= 1 point

    • behind the three-point line = 3 points

Review complete
Review Complete:

Good Luck on your exam!