Physical Education 2015/2016
Technology and P.E. in the Classroom • Technology: A device or system which uses a complex set of systems in order to operate. Can assist in making lives easier. • P.E. Physical activity: Movement or organized activities required by the state of California for all children in public schools.
Technology Software for P.E. • Muscle Flash Software: Look online about anatomy, doing sit-ups, push-ups, which muscles students use • Excel: Monitor progress in physical fitness (Body Fat, Metabolic Rates) • PowerPoint Presentation: Slideshows • Microsoft Word: Nutrition/Exercise Plans
Activities Using P.E. Across the Curriculum • Olympics: Summer, Winter, and Greek Olympics (Language Arts, History, Math, Science). • Soccer,Tennis: Area of Geometric Shapes, Distance, Speed, Rates (Math)q.
Technology Software • Palm: Handheld computers that allow teachers as well as students to enter results of strengthen, flexibilities, cardiovascular fitness testing. • http://www.palm.com/us/education/studies/study25.html • Internet: Interactive Websites for physical fitness, charts, exercise ideas for students, online newspapers that have monthly focuses on physical fitness and ideas. • http://www.pecentral.org/lessonideas/pelessonplans.html
Technology and the Internet • Encourage students to examine fitness levels and explore participation in physical activities. • Teach students how to create exercise programs to fit their needs and fitness level. • Communicates fitness ideas, healthy eating tips, and positive messages. • Encourages physical education for all children.
Websites for Parents/Children • Get Active, Stay Active • P.E.Links4u • PE Program Websites • PE Central • Kidnetic • Kids Running Online
Sources Cited for Technology in Physical Education • PE Program Websites, http://www.pecentral.org/websites/peprogramsites.html • Get Active, Stay Active, http://www.getactivestayactive.com/ • P.E.Links4u, http://www.pelinks4u.org/index.htm
Sources Cited for Technology Continued . . . . • PE Central, http://www.peclogit.org/logit.asp • Kidnetic, http://www.kidnetic.com/ • Kids Running Online, http://www.kidsrunning.com/
Physical Education Teaching Styles Spectrum of Teaching Styles (Mosston and Ashworth,1986) Teacher Directed Student Directed _____________________________________________________ A B C D E F G H Style A: Command Style B: Practice/Task Style C: Reciprocal Style D: Self-Check Style E: Inclusion Style F: Guided Discovery Style G: Divergent Style H: Individual
Mosston’s Spectrum of Teaching Styles • A continuum of methods of instruction ranging from teacher to student directed • Each style meets specific objectives and has varying benefits. • Using a variety of teaching styles promotes creativity for teachers and students, and allows teacher to meet the students’ individual needs
Style A:Command • Description: Teacher makes all decisions; learner follows specific directions • Benefits: Organized, on-task, easy with large groups, insures that proper skill is being taught, safety, lots of activity time • Examples of when to use: Technique is difficult, high risk equipment, a lot of behavioral problems, lower ability students
Style B: Practice/Task • Description: Teacher explains and demonstrates; students practice the tasks that were demonstrated at their own pace; teacher may implement task cards • Benefits: Wide variety skill level, high activity • Examples of when to use: big group environment, stations
Style C: Reciprocal • Description: After a teacher demonstration and explanation, students work in pairs; one does the task, the other provides feedback • Benefits: A lot of feedback, always learning, by doing and watching, comfortable with feedback, improved skill performance, encouragement, social skills, student engagement, all levels-psychomotor, cognitive, affective • Examples: Skill development, self-motivated students, space is limited, knowledge of skill, different levels of ability
Style D: Self-Check • Description: Students assesses and corrects own performance on a skill taught by the teacher. • Benefits: Teaches students to be self-motivated, non-threatening, immediate feedback, a lot of data • Examples: fitness/health, wide variety of learners, when no one else is available to give feedback
Style E:Inclusion • Description: Teacher provides multiple tasks with varying levels of difficulty; students decide entry level and speed of progress • Benefits- less-pressure, fun, variety of appropriate tasks, independence, individuality, student able to assess, make comparisons to their own skill performance, improvement of learner skill, success for all skill levels • Examples:Motivated students, able to assess themselves, motor skills/fitness, kicking lesson- L1- station kick L2 station kick moving target L3 moving kick, moving target
Style F: Guided Discovery/Convergent • Description: Student discovers appropriate movement responses by responding to the teacher’s guiding questions. (series of questions, to lead to one correct response >) • Benefits: Increases student activity, not boring, high student practice of cognate skills • Examples-Elementry-College, within the closure of the lesson, to answer why questions, strategies
Style G: Divergent • Description: Student discover multiple responses to a single question or movement problem with less assistance from the teacher. < • Benefits: Exploration, activity doesn’t have to be a sport, confidence, self-esteem, appropriate at all levels, discovery, critical thinking • Examples: Elementary, used to get kids to move- teaching a non-specific motor movement, Adventure education- educational gymnastics
Style H: Individual • Description: Teacher determines the objectives of the lesson; student determines how best to learn the content. • Benefits: Cognitive thinking involved, self empowerment, choose instruction style, individual feedback/assessment • Examples: older students, strategies/ designing drills.
Reproductive vs. Productive • Reproductive- command, practice, reciprocal, self-check, and inclusion teaching styles. Learner reproduces known material or knowledge. The focus is on replication of a specific model. Often the subject matter involves concrete facts, rules, or specific skills. Therefore, the learner must be provided a correct model to emulate, adequate time to practice the model, and congruent feedback related to the original model.
Reproductive vs. Productive • Productive- is dependent upon the learner producing new knowledge to self or teacher. Teacher invites learner to engage in cognitive operations like problem solving, creating, inventing, of critically thinking to discover new movements. Teacher must provide the students time for cognitive processing, a class climate focused on searching and examining, and feedback for producing alternative solutions rather than a single solutions. • Guided discovery, convergent discovery, divergent production, individual program-learner design, learner-initiated, self teaching.
Conclusion • Each style of teaching is not inherently better or more effective than the others, but rather that each style met a specific set of unique objectives or goals. • Mosston- “the conceptual basis of the Spectrum rests on the ‘non-versus’ notion. That I, each style has its place in reaching a specific set of objectives; hence, no style, by itself, is better or best… Each style is equally important” (p. viii). • Research continues to help understand which styles work best for the learner in certain situations
Non-traditional PE Instruction • Traditional PE • Teacher chooses the sport for the unit • Teacher demonstrates skills specific to sport • Students practice isolated skills • Students play in full or modified games • Two other Instructional Models: • Tactical Games • Sport Education
Tactical Games • Lesson plans designed around tactics, not skills • Tactics = the combination of strategy and skill needed to perform a game in game-like situations • Examples = defensive positioning, advancing runners in baseball, shot selection • Objective is to cognitively and then physically solve a tactical problem in sport • Teacher determines tactic, students work to solve it • Goal is to play games more and do drills less
Sport Education • Students divided into teams that work together for a whole “season” (vs. “unit”) • Students participate in all roles of sport: player, coach, captain, trainer, official • Incorporates team building activities: team name, cheer, mascot, flag, etc. • Ends with culminating event (Championship Game, World Series, Superbowl, etc.) and award ceremony (MVP, most improved, most spirit, fair play award, etc.)
Theoretical/Philosophical Basis • Constructivist Theory • Learners make new learning based on previous knowledge • Goal is to increase understanding • Pragmatism • Concerned with real life issues • Application of ideas in experience • Ideas are social in origin • Success is about solving problems that challenge us and increase our intelligence and understanding
Theoretical/Philosophical Basis • Progressivism • Education is an opportunity to apply previous experience in new ways • Students solve problems similar to those found in real world • Relevant to interests of students • People learn best through interaction w/ others • Liberalism • Innovative methods with flexible teachers • Free access to ideas • Use of reason to solve problems
Kinesiology in Special Education • How is kinesiology applied in the Special Education Setting? • More specifically, what type of kinesthetic activities benefit students with emotional or behavioral difficulties?
Application of Kinesiology in Special Education? • Types of disabilities • Mobility issues • Tools • Implementation • Adaptive P.E.
What types of Activities??? • Traditional P.E.? • Equipment for your classroom & how do you get it??? • Group Dynamics…… • Always, Safety First!!!