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Chapter 1. Data, information, knowledge and processing. Data, information and knowledge. Data is made up of alphanumeric characters Information = data + structure + context + meaning Knowledge is the application and use of the information. Representation methods. Text (including writing)

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chapter 1

Chapter 1

Data, information, knowledge

and processing

data information and knowledge
Data, information and knowledge

Data is made up of alphanumeric characters

Information = data + structure + context + meaning

Knowledge is the application and use of the information

representation methods

Text (including writing)

Graphics (including pictures)

Sound (including voice)

Moving pictures (animation or video)

LED (sequence of lights)

data types
Data types

Boolean: true or false

Real: numbers with decimals

Integer: whole numbers

Text/String: alphanumeric characters


sources of data
Sources of data

Direct and indirect

A direct source is where you have collected the data

An indirect source is where someone else has collected it, either for the same or for a different purpose

static and dynamic data
Static and dynamic data

Static data cannot be changed

(e.g. CD-ROM)

Dynamic data can be updated

(e.g. web pages)

quality of information
Quality of information






Level of detail

encoding data validation
Encoding data Validation

Ensures data entered is reasonable, complete, sensible and within acceptable boundaries

This is achieved by:

range checks

type checks

presence checks

length checks

picture checks

encoding data verification
Encoding data Verification

Ensures the source and object data are the same

This is achieved by:


computer verification

back up and archive
Back-up and archive

Back-up is making a copy of the data

Archive is removing the data from direct access

cost of information
Cost of information

Hardware: specialist equipment, such as scanner, camera, graphics tablet, etc.

Software: desktop publishing or graphics software, etc.

Personnel: new employees and the training of individuals

Consumables: electricity, ink and paper

input process output feedback loop
Input–process–output feedback loop

Input: external data placed into the system

Process: manipulating the data

Storage: holding the data for later use

Output: data being passed outside of the system

Feedback: output influencing the input