Warm-Up What do the Jewish people believe in?
SS7G8.c Compare And Contrast The Three Main Religions
Vocabulary Monotheism – Belief in one God. Descendents – Family members
About Judaism 1st Monotheistic religion in the world Over 4000 years old Started by Abraham and his decedents. Worshiped a God named Jehovah / Yahweh Symbol is the Star of David
Writings and literature Torah – Name of religious writing. The first 5 books of the Bible. Synagogue/Temple – Place of worship Rabbi – Religious leaders Sabbath – Religious observance day. All day Saturday.
What Jews Believe Believe in one God, creator of the universe Religious book is Torah 1st 5 books of the bible Moses primary author Includes 10 commandments
Torah Religious book 1st 5 books of the bible Moses primary author Includes 10 commandments
Old Testament Characters Adam and Eve – Creation story Noah – Destruction of the earth Abraham – Started Worshiping God Created the Nation of Israel Moses – Saved Israellites from Egyptian slavery David – Killed Goliath first king of Israel
Exit Questions • 1. What is monotheism? • 2. Who is responsible for starting the Jewish religion? • 3. What is the Torah? • 4. When is the Sabbath? • 5. What are the 10 commandments?
Warm-Up • What is monotheism and how is it different polytheism?
Hebrew / Jewish History 12tribes make up Hebrew Lived in Cannan modern Israel Forced into slavery by Egyptians Moses led them out of slavery (called Exodus) Went back to Israel Called Jews after largest tribe Judah
Judah and Modern Israel David becomes king Makes capital Jerusalem Later King Saul builds the Temple Both the Babylonian and Romans take over area 70 A.D. temple is destroyed
A nation in Diaspora (dispersed) 15 – 16 million in worldwide population United by a common heritage (an “ethnic” religion), divided in contemporary practice: Orthodox: Reformed (18th century Germany) Conservative – moderates, response to reform As a people, Jews are…
613 commandments found in Torah (“Written Law”) Dietary rules Dress and other symbols Prayer and devotion to the one God The Temple and Temple rites Observance of Holy days Proper social relations between male and female, in business, judicial rulings, etc As a way of life, Judaism is based on…
The Jewish Holidays: High Holidays: Rosh Hashanah (Jewish New Year) Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) Chanukah, the “Festival of Lights” Pesach (“Passover”) – commemorates the exodus from Egypt (events told in Exodus) How does Judaism sanctify time?
Judaism & Christianity Judaism predates Christianity – it is the foundation of Christianity but is not a part of it Jesus and Apostles were Jewish Jew believe Jesus was a prophet but not Messiah Jews are not concerned about salvation and the “world to come”
Exit Question • 1. What is the Diaspora? • 2. Name one Jewish holiday. • 3. What do the Jewish people think about Jesus? • 4. What is the symbol of Judaism? • 5. What does “Chanukah” stand for?
SS7G8.C Compare and Contrast The three Main Religions
Enter Jesus Christianity followers of Jesus began in Judea / Israel Leader Jesus Born a Jew at about 4 B.C. Parents, Mary & Joseph, Lived in Nazareth. Christians call Mary the Virgin Mary. Christians believe Jesus is the “Son of God”
Many believe Jesus’ birth fulfilled a prophecy that a virgin would give birth to the Messiah • Jesus began his ministry in Galilee, north of Judea, when he was in his early 30’s. • The Gospels contain stories about his birth in the city of Bethlehem.
Life of Jesus Jesus attracted disciples / followers preached, performed miracles, & criticizing the Jewish authorities. Jesus preached about the coming of the Kingdom of God, meaning an eternally just and peaceful state of affairs. Kingdom of God = heaven Believed to be the “Son of God”
Easter Story The Romans, who governed Judea, executed Jesus about A.D. 30 by crucifixion. Later, his followers found his tomb empty and believed Jesus had risen from the dead.
Followers of Christ Jesus’ disciples spread his teachings throughout the Roman Empire organized churches. New religion open to all and not just Jews
Exit Questions • 1. What do Christians believe Jesus is? • 2. What religion was Jesus? • 3. How old was Jesus when he started his ministry? • 4. How did Jesus die? • 4. What happened to Jesus after his death that made people believe he was the Messiah?
Warm-Up • What event ended the life of Jesus?
Early Christians / Martyrs The first Christians believed that Jesus would return soon, They refused to honor Roman gods, which the Romans believed could anger the gods and thus endanger the empire. Some Roman emperors had early Christians arrested, imprisoned, and even killed. Some Christians welcomed the chance to become martyrs (individuals who suffered or died for their faith).
Spread of Christianity During the first century A.D., Christianity spread rapidly throughout the Mediterranean region. important Christian cities, include Alexandria, Egypt; Antioch, in present-day Turkey; Jerusalem, in present-day Israel; Rome.
End of Persecution 313 Edict of Milan Ends persecution of Christians Religious tolerance throughout the empire
Writings of Christianity Most early Christians accepted the books of the Jewish Bible as inspired by God and made them part of the Christian Bible. They also added their own writings to the canon—that is, the official list of books of the Bible.
Facts about Christianity Followers of Christianity are called Christians approximately 2 billion Christians worldwide Most Christians can be found in Europe, North and South America Africa holy book is called The Bible
The religious laws of Christians are called “Cannon Law” The people who teach Christian beliefs are Priests, Ministers, Pastors, Bishops The religious buildings of Christians are referred to as Church, Chapel Cathedral The holy Day (Sabbath) for most Christians is Sunday
Exit Questions • 1. What region did early Christianity spread through? • 2. What religion is the base of Christianity? • 3. What areas are Christian in the world? • 4. What is the holy book of Christianity called? • 5. What are the laws of Christianity called?
Story of Prophet Mohammed He was born to Arab parents from the tribe of Quraish, in Mecca. The Quraish worshiped 360 gods. They believed these gods will get them closer to the God of gods (Allah). His parents died very early. He never worshiped Idols, drank Alcohol or lied. He worked as a shepherd and then as a trader. Known to people in Mecca as “the Honest”.
Story of Prophet Mohammed Arab tribes had multiple wars with the prophet and Muslims. Finally, victory was for Islam and Mecca fell into the hands of the prophet. He forgave all his enemies and soon, his followers became in hundreds of thousands. He died at the age of 63.
Spread of Islam Following Mohammad’s death a series of Caliphs (religious political rulers) came to power Muslim tribal armies spread out of Arabia to destroy and convert conquering Egypt, Syria, Mesopotamia, and Iran and establishing an Islamic empire.
Spread of Islam From 661–750 the Islamic Empire pushed the boundaries of Muslim conquest as far west as Spain and east to the borders of India. Islamic capital moved to Baghdad Islamic thought, the arts, and literature were at their apogee. the Mongols sacked the city of Baghdad in 1258
Allah Monotheistic Allah is Arabic for God Used by Muslims Allah – the one God
1. Who is the founder of Islam? 2. Where was he born? 3. What did he do when he captured Mecca? 4. What is a Caliph? 5. What does Allah mean in Arabic? Exit Questions
Koran Holy Book Original intact as given by the Prophet in Arabic 114 Chapters Teaches what a Muslim must do Quran(Koran): The Holy Book
5 Pillars of Islam Profession of Faith (Shahadah) Prayers (Salah) Charity (Zakat) Fasting ( Sawm) Pilgrimage (Hajj)
Profession of Faith (Shahadah) The Shahadah is the basic creed or tenet of Islam: "I testify that there is no god but Allah, and I testify that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah". This is the most important pillar Ideally, it is the first words a newborn will hear, and children are taught as soon as they are able to understand it and it will be recited when they die. Muslims must repeat the shahadah in prayer
Prayers (Salah) Five Daily Prayers from Dawn to Late Evening regulate a Muslim’s day Face Kabah, prayers in Arabic as taught by the Prophet. Additional Prayers optional Prayers (Salah)
Charity (Zakat) Required 2.5% charity on yearly savings A Muslim must be a charitable person Removing a stone from the road is charity Greeting with a smile is a charity
Fasting (Sawm) Ramadan is 9th month in Islamic Lunar calendar Daily dawn to sunset fast for 29/30 days (no food or drink) Done to show sacrifice Mohammad made when he received his revelations Eidul-Fitr Holiday at the end
Pilgrimage (Hajj) About 2-3 million Muslims perform Hajj each year from all over the world. Every Muslim at least once in their life must make a pilgrimage to Mecca