Chapter 1 History of Sport and Public Assembly Facilities
Sport Facility • Sport Facility Defined • As any enclosed facility where sports are played. • The enclosure can be either natural or manmade. • The enclosure has to be complete so that the facility is self- contained
Excluded from the Traditional definition • Lakefront property and golf courses
PAF • Public Assembly Facility (PAF) • Public assembly facilities include sport facilities as well as other entertainment or non-entertainment facilities where large groups of people can gather. • arenas, stadiums, theaters, and convention centers
Facilities in Ancient Times • In order to appreciate current and future issues involved in sport facility management, it is critical to understand how far the industry has progressed. • Facts associated with Greek and Roman sport facilities suggests that we are still using some of the ancient strategies.
Greece • In ancient Greece, sports were a form of worship. • Olympia was one of the oldest religious centers in the Greek world. Because of its religious history, Olympia was a natural site for the origin of the Olympic Games.
Olympic Facilities • Original Olympic stadium, built in Olympia in 776 B.C. • http://www.vergottini.com/Mediterranean00/Athens.htm • Was an extension of an already existing religious sanctuary dedicated to Zeus.
Olympic Facilities • Combining the sanctuary and other buildings added over time, the facility formed the first known sport complex. • (Altars, hostel for visitors, training facilities for wrestlers and boxers, a gymnasium, and running track)
Olympic Facilities • Stadia • A stadia was shaped like a U built into the hillside, with massive sloping embankments on each side of the U that served as seating.
Olympic Facilities • Ancient Olympia Stadium, built in Olympia, Greece, in 776 bc., is a stark contrast to the Olympic stadium from the 2004 Athens Summer Olympic Games
Hippodromes and Theaters • A semicircular and was built around the orchestra. • Delphi Stadium
The Coliseum • TheFlavian Amphitheater is usually known as the Coliseum either because of its huge size or because a colossal statue in gilded bronze of Nero in the guise of the Sun god originally stood nearby. The Coliseum was begun by Vespasian in 72 A.D. and inaugurated in 80 A.D. by Titus with a hundred days of celebrations, during which several thousand wild beasts and gladiators were reputedly killed. The amphitheater was completed, however, by the emperor Domitian.
Circus Maximus • The Circus Maximus was a track used primarily for horse-racing, although it was used on occasion for hunts or mock battles. It had 300,000 seats and was famous throughout the ancient world. Built in the 6th century B.C. during the time of the Tarquins, the history of the Circus Maximus is troubled. It was twice destroyed by fire and on at least two occasions the stands collapsed, killing many people.
Circus Maximus • In the Circus Maximus, unlike the amphitheaters of the day, men and women could sit together. The Circus Maximus also had the ancient equivalent of the skyboxes you see now in stadiums for professional sports. The Emperor had a reserved seat, as did senators, knights, those who financially backed the race, those who presided over the competition, and the jury that awarded the prize to the winners. The last race held at the Circus Maximus was in 549 A.D., nearly a full millennium after the track's construction.
Cincinnati Reds Stadium Odyssey • Year Stadium Team Name • 1876-1879 Avenue Grounds Cincinnati Red Stockings • 1880 Bank Street Grounds Same • 1881 Did not play • 1882-1883 Bank Street Grounds Same • 1884-1889 League Park Same • 1890-1901 League Park Cincinnati Reds • 1902-1911 Palace of the Fans Same • 1912-1933 Redlands Field Same • 1934-1952 Crosley Field Same • 1953-1958 Crosley Field Cincinnati Redlegs • 1959-1970 Crosley Field Cincinnati Reds • 1970-1996 Riverfront Stadium Same • 1997-2002 Cynergy Field (name changed) Same • 2003 Great American Ball Park Same (Ballparks.com, 2002)
Big Ten Football Stadium Seating Capacity in 1990s • Facility, University Wis. Opened Capacity • Camp Randall Stadium 1917 76,129 • Ohio Stadium, Ohio 1922 101,568 • Memorial Stadium Ill. 1923 70,904 • Ross-Ade Stadium, Purdue 1824 67,861 • Ryan Field, Northwestern 1826 49,256 • Michigan Stadium, Mich. 1927 107,501 • Kinnick Stadium, Iowa 1929 70,397 • Spartan Stadium, Mich St. 1957 72,027 • Memorial Stadium, Indiana 1960 52,354 • Beaver Stadium, Penn St. 1960 106,537 • Medrodome, Minnesota 1982 64,035
Facility Management Facts • NFL Football Stadium Construction by Decade • Decade #Built • 1920s 1 • 1950s 2 • 1960s 3 • 1970s 7 • 1980s 3 • 1990s 9 • 2000s 7
Facility Management Facts • The largest football stadium in the world is the Maracana Stadium in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The stadium built in 1950 can hold 155,000 soccer fans. An even larger facility is the Texas Motor Speedway, which has fixed seating for 150,000, 200 luxury boxes and an almost limitless open area to host ¼ million people for concerts or other events. However, according to Guinness Book of World Records, the largest stadium ever built was the Strahov Stadium in Prague, the Czech Republic, which opened in 1934 and could accommodate 240,000 spectators and 40,000 athletes on the field. The stadium was used for massive synchronized exercise programs.
Madison Square Garden • Known as the “World’s Most Famous Arena. • 5,600-seat theater • 20,000-seat arena • 40,000-square-foot expo-center • Two restaurant • 89 club suites • Host more than 600 events each year • Serves as both a subway and a train station • Hosted dogs and cats, elephants and athletes, award shows, musical artists, superstars, and even Big Bird. • One of the famous fights between Muhammad Ali and Joe Frazer took place at the Garden in 1971 • Example of a successful multipurpose (PAF)
Toronto Maple Leaf Gardens • Multipurpose (PAF)
Arena at Harbor Yard • The Arena at Harbor Yard, completed in the Fall of 2001, is home to the American Hockey League’s Bridgeport Sound Tigers, an affiliate of the NHL’s New York Islanders, and the Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference’s Fairfield University men’s and women’s basketball teams. The arena is equipped to accommodate 8,500 people for hockey games and 9,000 people for basketball games. Additionally, the arena is capable of housing 6,000 people for concerts and can hold 150, 10 foot by 10 foot, booths for Trade Shows. The facility has five locker rooms, seven permanent concession stands, 13 loge suites, 20 portable kiosks, 14 women’s and 13 men’s rooms, 33 executive suites, 1,300 club seats, 40,000 light bulbs, 10,600 gallons of water needed to create ice rink, 6,000 pieces of structural steel, 4,754 cubic yards of concrete, and took 721 days to construct. • Based on the 196,300 square feet in the facility, the cost per square foot totaled $262.29 and the final construction price was $56,278,684. The original schematic budget was just under $37 million.
Arena at Harbor Yard • Harbor Yard Construction Costs • Category Cost Cost per Sq. Ft. % of Total • General insurance and bond issuance costs $3,379,423 $15.75 6.77% • Additional general requirements 408,057 1.90 0.82 • Site work 4,322,600 20.15 8.66 • Concrete 4,855,785 22.63 9.72 • Masonry 3,238,681 15.09 6.49 • Metals 6,949,401 32.39 13.92 • Wood and Plastics 586.766 2.73 1.18 • Thermal and moisture protection 2,260,087 10.53 4.53 • Doors and windows 1,194,967 5.57 2.39 • Finishes(paint, carpeting, etc..) 3,721,601 17.34 7.45 • Equipment 15,175 0.07 0.03 • Furnishings including retractable seating 1,640,662 7.65 3.29 • Conveying systems (elevators/escalators) 350,445 1.63 0.70 • Fire protection 815,850 3.80 1.63 • Plumbing 2,623,075 12.22 5.25 • Heating, ventilation and air cond. (HVAC) 6,911,690 32.21 13.84 • Refrigeration 771,925 3.60 1.55 • Electrical 5,885,993 27.43 11.79 • Construction management fee 2,410,383 11.23 4.83 • Construction contingency (1,777,304) (8.28) -3.56 • Owner’s contingency 408,422 1.90 0.82 • FFE Allowance 5,305,000 24.72 10.62 • Total Cost 56,278,684 262.29