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Ideologies. Marxism Liberalism Conservatism. Marxism. Social, political and economic theories of Karl Marx, interpreting Western history as class struggle Associated with Communism and Socialism. Marxism. Assumptions Reality is material (what may be examined scientifically)

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ideologies

Ideologies

Marxism

Liberalism

Conservatism

marxism
Marxism
  • Social, political and economic theories of Karl Marx, interpreting Western history as class struggle
  • Associated with Communism and Socialism
marxism3
Marxism

Assumptions

  • Reality is material (what may be examined scientifically)
  • History is the record of class conflicts for economic control
  • Class that controls economy also controls society’s superstructure
  • Eventually, the proletariat (working class) will triumph over capitalists
  • After capitalism is overthrown, a fair and equitable society will be born
marxism4
Marxism

Education

  • Realistic examination of economic factors behind exploitation
  • Exposure of “false ideology”
  • Discussion of ways to organize the oppressed to improve their situation
  • Strategies for taking action to transform society and the economy
liberalism
Liberalism
  • People are basically good (or at least not inherently evil)
  • People should enjoy the greatest possible freedom
  • People should work together in socially intelligent ways to solve problems
  • Religion is a private matter and separate from the state
liberalism6
Liberalism
  • People have a right to own property and pursue their economic interests, but the government should tax those with means to support those with low SES
  • Support the committee approach to individuals and associations
  • Support process-oriented problem solving and progress to improve the human condition
liberalism7
Liberalism

Education

  • Schools must be adaptive and anticipate social and economic change
  • Curriculum must fit changing social needs and problems
  • New subjects may be added to address new issues and problems (e.g., sex education)
  • Teachers must be willing to divert from the curriculum when needed
  • Students should be treated as individuals, but also taught to respect and participate in groups
conservatism
Conservatism
  • American past is the history of a unique and exceptional people, consisting of the successful integration of immigrants into our society
  • U.S. has the right to make unilateral decisions that affect the rest of the world
  • Support the maintenance of and participation in the American free enterprise system
  • Social welfare programs create dependency; all should compete to pursue society’s rewards
  • Christian fundamentalists generally ally themselves with conservatism
conservatism9
Conservatism

Education

  • Primary purpose of school is to educate youth in academic skills and knowledge, transmitting cultural heritage to successive generations
  • Curriculum should emphasize core knowledge and values of American culture
  • Schools should have no tolerance for challenges to authority and should teach respect for country, teachers, and fellow citizens
  • School policies need to revert to traditional role, refocusing on its mission instead of taking on more and more roles better suited to others
  • Schools must uphold high academic standards and hold teachers and students accountable for meeting them