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Ideologies. Definition – Nationalism is a common bond shared by a group of people who feel strongly attached to a particular land and who possess a Common language, culture, and history, marked by shared glories and sufferings.

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Nationalism the sacredness of the nation

Definition – Nationalism is a common bond shared by a group

of people who feel strongly attached to a particular land and

who possess a Common language, culture, and history, marked

by shared glories and sufferings.

  • Nationalists contend that one’s highest loyalty should be given to the nation. They exhibit great pride in their people’s history and traditions and often feel that their nation had been specially chosen by God or history.

    Q1: What is nationalism?

Nationalism: The Sacredness of the Nation


Nationalism and imperialism

  • Policymakers hoped that possession of empires would unite together disparate social groups with pride in national power. This was especially important to newly unified countries such as Germany and Italy.

  • In other words, nationalism led to imperialism. Many leaders hoped that imperialism would win them the loyalty of their own people. The nationalistic competition among Europeans led them, for a time, to extend their power struggles to Africa and Asia, acquiring territories for strategic reasons or sometimes just to keep competitors from doing so.

    Q2: How did nationalism lead to imperialism?

Nationalism and Imperialism


Imperialism social darwinism

  • The most extreme ideological expression of nationalism and imperialism was Social Darwinism.

  • The theory of evolution justified the exploitation of “lesser breeds” by “superior races.”

  • Europeans would repeatedly suggest that they had evolved more than Africans and Asians, and that hence nature itself gave them the right to rule others.

Q3. How does Social Darwinism link to British Imperialism?

Imperialism: Social Darwinism


Charles darwin 1809 1882

Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species (1859) imperialism was Social Darwinism.

  • Darwin’s theory of evolution holds that environmental effects lead to varying degrees of reproductive success in individuals and groups of organisms. (Natural Selection)

    Descent of Man (1871)

  • Applied Evolution to the social order (people).

    Q4. What was Darwin’s theory of evolution?

Charles Darwin, 1809-1882


Social evolution

Social Evolution imperialism was Social Darwinism.


Ideologies

The earliest ancestors of humans ( imperialism was Social Darwinism.hominids) diverged from apes about 8 million years ago

Between 3 and 2 million years ago, they learned to walk erect.

Q5. How did Darwin describe the evolution of the human race?


Ideologies

Between imperialism was Social Darwinism.2 and 1.5 million years ago, hominids began to migrate from Africa to other lands

Q5. How did Darwin describe the evolution of the human race?


Ideologies

First Europeans: approx. 780,000 years ago imperialism was Social Darwinism.

Q5. How did Darwin describe the evolution of the human race?


Ideologies

  • About imperialism was Social Darwinism.100,000 years ago, those early humans went almost completely extinct as a result of a global ecological catastrophe

  • It is possible that as few as 10,000 survived…

Q5. How did Darwin describe the evolution of the human race?


Ideologies

It was from those few survivors that man ( imperialism was Social Darwinism.homo sapiens) emerged in Africa

Q5. How did Darwin describe the evolution of the human race?


Ideologies

As their numbers grew, imperialism was Social Darwinism.homo sapiens began to move across the continents in search of food, water, land, and security

Q5. How did Darwin describe the evolution of the human race?


Social darwinism

Social Darwinism imperialism was Social Darwinism.


Herbert spencer 1820 1903

  • Spencer coined the phrase “survival of the fittest” to describe the outcome of competition between social groups.

  • In Social Statics (1850) and other works, Spencer argued that through competition social evolution would automatically produce prosperity and personal liberty unparalleled in human history.

Herbert Spencer, 1820-1903

Q6. What were the main arguments put forth by Spencer and how do you think they would lead to the expansion of imperial empires?


Social darwinism1

Social Darwinism


Ideologies

See- What do you literally see in the picture? discredited theories that attempt to legitimize social inequality, and explain social classes and processes.

Think- What you can see+ tying in background knowledge.

Wonder- What would you like to know that is not represented in the picture?


Social hierarchy

  • English culture, of course, was placed at the top. discredited theories that attempt to legitimize social inequality, and explain social classes and processes.

  • Irish were classed as "barbarians", and all the other races and cultures of the world similarly ranked.

  • The work served to justify many of the hard-to-justify political causes of the day, especially British imperialism.

  • At the time, it was popular to speak of the "white man's burden" to take over more "primitive" cultures and help them progress to a more "evolved" (that is, British) state.

Q7. How did the British justify their expansion?

Social Hierarchy


Ideologies

See- What do you literally see in the picture? discredited theories that attempt to legitimize social inequality, and explain social classes and processes.

Think- What you can see+ tying in background knowledge.

Wonder- What would you like to know that is not represented in the picture?


Social hierarchy1

  • Spencer's work also served to revive the ideas of Hobbes and Malthus. Malthus's 1798 An Essay on the Principle of Population, for example, argued that as increasing population must outgrow its food supply, it was "natural", and inevitable, to allow the weakest to starve.

  • Some historians have suggested that the theory and similar concepts were used by the British to justify the continued export of agricultural produce from Ireland, even as the Irish were suffering from famine, in particular the Great Famine of 1845-1849.

Social Hierarchy

Q8. How did the British justify restricting the food supply of other nations?


Ideologies

See- What do you literally see in the picture? Malthus. Malthus's 1798 An Essay on the Principle of Population, for example, argued that as increasing population must outgrow its food supply, it was "natural", and inevitable, to allow the weakest to starve.

Think- What you can see+ tying in background knowledge.

Wonder- What would you like to know that is not represented in the picture?


Read white man s burden

  • As you read, answer the following questions to guide your understanding of the poem.

  • 1. According to Kipling, and in your own words, what was the “White Man’s Burden”?

  • 2. What reward did Kipling suggest the “White Man” gets for carrying his “burden”?

  • 3. Who did Kipling think would read his poem? What do you think that this audience might have said in response to it?

Read White Man’s Burden


Long term consequences

Long term consequences

Q9. What were the long term consequences of Social Darwinism?


Mercantilism

Mercantilism

Q10. State and explain some of the general characteristics of mercantilism.


Mercantilism1

  • Nevertheless, as the colonies grew and became more prosperous, the English realized that the colonies could provide increased trade, if competition could be eliminated.

  • Americans had established profitable trade with other countries, notably the Dutch. In order to increase her wealth, Britain tightened the economic noose around the neck of the colonies by implementing regulatory policies, thus changing her relationship with the colonies.

Mercantilism

Q10. State and explain some of the general characteristics of mercantilism.


Mercantilism2

  • From 1650 on, England instituted a series of laws of trade and navigation known as the Navigation Acts.

  • Their purpose was to limit colonial trade to the British only.

  • If colonists intended to trade with any other nations, all goods had first to be shipped to England, giving her an opportunity to handle them and collect revenue from taxation. In addition, there were certain products that could be traded only with Britain, such as tobacco, sugar and cotton.  

Q11. Discuss the purpose of the Navigation Acts.

Mercantilism


Mercantilism3

  • In keeping with the general policy of mercantilism, England encouraged the colonists to specialize in the production of raw materials.

  • English factories converted raw goods to products which were then shipped back to the colonies. This provided the British with a profitable market, free from competition.

Mercantilism

Q12. How did these policies affect the colonies?


Questions to answer

  • State and explain some of the general characteristics of mercantilism.

  • The idea that the colonies are there to support the mother country and supply them with resources. Also- trade restrictions. Money was made only for the mother country. This policy was at the expense of the colonies.

  • Discuss the purpose of the Navigation Acts.

  • Regulation of economic activities in the colonies. Limiting trade- only with Britain.

  • How did these policies affect the colonies?

    Colonies were starved, they had to send their goods/resources away and they were poor as a result of the taxes. (Eventually they were angry)

Questions to answer: