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The Age of Jackson

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  1. The Age of Jackson

  2. Essential Question • How did political beliefs and events shape Andrew Jackson’s presidency?

  3. Disputed Election of 1824

  4. 4 candidates – all RepublicansJohn Quincy Adams – New EnglandHenry Clay – WestAndrew Jackson – WestWilliam Crawford – South

  5. The “Corrupt Bargain” • No clear winner of election of 1824 • Andrew Jackson won popular vote but not majority • House of Representatives has to choose President

  6. The “Corrupt Bargain” • Henry Clay urges his supporters to vote for Adams • Adams wins, appoints Clay Sec. of State • Jackson accuses Clay and Adams of corruption

  7. John Quincy Adams • An unpopular President • Americans are mad about election • Makes it hard for Adams to accomplish anything meaningful as President

  8. Election of 1828 Adams vs. Jackson

  9. Election of 1828 • Bitter campaign • Jackson wins • Seen as a victory for the “common man” – farmers in the West and South, & factory workers in the East

  10. Jackson in the White House

  11. Andrew Jackson • Tough fighter • Self-made man: • Lawyer • War hero – War of 1812 (Battle of New Orleans) • Good leader • “Old Hickory” – tough as the wood of a hickory tree

  12. The Spoils System • Spoils System • Rewarding supporters with gov’t jobs • Jackson fired many gov’t employees and put his supporters in office • Critics claimed these people were unqualified for service • Jackson said he was expanding democracy by letting more citizens participate in gov’t

  13. “Kitchen Cabinet” • Some supporters were awarded Cabinet posts • Only Martin van Buren was qualified • Instead of meeting with official Cabinet, Jackson would meet with unofficial advisors in White House kitchen (newspaper editors and Democratic leaders)

  14. The Bank Wars

  15. Essential Question • Why did Andrew Jackson want to close the Bank of the United States?

  16. Mr. Biddle’s Bank Nicholas Biddle was president of the Bank of the United States – great power • Jackson saw Bank as undemocratic • Jackson vetoes bank charter renewal • Said Bank of US unconstitutional and bank helped only the rich • Clay runs against Jackson in 1832 – Jackson wins

  17. Bank Closes • Government money deposited into state banks • Pet Banks – banks controlled by Sec. of Treasury Roger Taney or his friends • Bank of United States closes in 1836

  18. Crisis Over Tariffs • 1828 – Congress passes highest tariff • Southerners call it “Tariff of Abomination” • Hurts planters

  19. The Nullification Crisis • nullification – states can nullify (cancel) a federal law that is unconstitutional • 1832 – Congress passed new tariff that was lower than before • South Carolina threatens to secede (withdrawal from Union) if challenged on nullification

  20. Making ConnectionsBased on the following quote, why did Andrew Jackson want to close the Bank of the United States?“When the laws…make the rich richer and the potent more powerful, the humble members of society…who (lack)…the means of securing like favors to themselves, have a right to complain of the injustice of their government”

  21. Conflicts Over Land

  22. Essential Question • How did Andrew Jackson’s presidency affect Native Americans?

  23. Tragedy for Native Americans • White settlers wanted more land from the Indians • 1828 – Georgia claimed the right to make laws for Cherokee nation

  24. 1832 – Indian Removal Act • Forced many Native Americans to move west of Mississippi River

  25. Worcester v. Georgia • Cherokee’s went to court to defend rights • 1832 – Worcester v. Georgia • Chief Justice John Marshall rules in favor of the Cherokees

  26. Trail of Tears • 1838 – US Army drives 15,000 Cherokees westward • Little food or shelter • 25% casualties

  27. The Presidency After Jackson

  28. Panic of 1837 • 1830s – gov’t sold millions of acres of public land in the West • State banks print more paper money – not backed by gold/silver • Paper money couldn’t be exchanged, banks closed

  29. Economic Depression • Cotton prices drop and the panic worsens • Lasts 3 years – 90% of factories close • Martin Van Buren – takes little action (laissez faire) • Cuts back on government expenses