Essential Question • How did political beliefs and events shape Andrew Jackson’s presidency?
4 candidates – all RepublicansJohn Quincy Adams – New EnglandHenry Clay – WestAndrew Jackson – WestWilliam Crawford – South
The “Corrupt Bargain” • No clear winner of election of 1824 • Andrew Jackson won popular vote but not majority • House of Representatives has to choose President
The “Corrupt Bargain” • Henry Clay urges his supporters to vote for Adams • Adams wins, appoints Clay Sec. of State • Jackson accuses Clay and Adams of corruption
John Quincy Adams • An unpopular President • Americans are mad about election • Makes it hard for Adams to accomplish anything meaningful as President
Election of 1828 Adams vs. Jackson
Election of 1828 • Bitter campaign • Jackson wins • Seen as a victory for the “common man” – farmers in the West and South, & factory workers in the East
Andrew Jackson • Tough fighter • Self-made man: • Lawyer • War hero – War of 1812 (Battle of New Orleans) • Good leader • “Old Hickory” – tough as the wood of a hickory tree
The Spoils System • Spoils System • Rewarding supporters with gov’t jobs • Jackson fired many gov’t employees and put his supporters in office • Critics claimed these people were unqualified for service • Jackson said he was expanding democracy by letting more citizens participate in gov’t
“Kitchen Cabinet” • Some supporters were awarded Cabinet posts • Only Martin van Buren was qualified • Instead of meeting with official Cabinet, Jackson would meet with unofficial advisors in White House kitchen (newspaper editors and Democratic leaders)
Essential Question • Why did Andrew Jackson want to close the Bank of the United States?
Mr. Biddle’s Bank Nicholas Biddle was president of the Bank of the United States – great power • Jackson saw Bank as undemocratic • Jackson vetoes bank charter renewal • Said Bank of US unconstitutional and bank helped only the rich • Clay runs against Jackson in 1832 – Jackson wins
Bank Closes • Government money deposited into state banks • Pet Banks – banks controlled by Sec. of Treasury Roger Taney or his friends • Bank of United States closes in 1836
Crisis Over Tariffs • 1828 – Congress passes highest tariff • Southerners call it “Tariff of Abomination” • Hurts planters
The Nullification Crisis • nullification – states can nullify (cancel) a federal law that is unconstitutional • 1832 – Congress passed new tariff that was lower than before • South Carolina threatens to secede (withdrawal from Union) if challenged on nullification
Making ConnectionsBased on the following quote, why did Andrew Jackson want to close the Bank of the United States?“When the laws…make the rich richer and the potent more powerful, the humble members of society…who (lack)…the means of securing like favors to themselves, have a right to complain of the injustice of their government”
Essential Question • How did Andrew Jackson’s presidency affect Native Americans?
Tragedy for Native Americans • White settlers wanted more land from the Indians • 1828 – Georgia claimed the right to make laws for Cherokee nation
1832 – Indian Removal Act • Forced many Native Americans to move west of Mississippi River
Worcester v. Georgia • Cherokee’s went to court to defend rights • 1832 – Worcester v. Georgia • Chief Justice John Marshall rules in favor of the Cherokees
Trail of Tears • 1838 – US Army drives 15,000 Cherokees westward • Little food or shelter • 25% casualties
Panic of 1837 • 1830s – gov’t sold millions of acres of public land in the West • State banks print more paper money – not backed by gold/silver • Paper money couldn’t be exchanged, banks closed
Economic Depression • Cotton prices drop and the panic worsens • Lasts 3 years – 90% of factories close • Martin Van Buren – takes little action (laissez faire) • Cuts back on government expenses