Civil Rights Top Ten. Honors American History Mrs. Cavell. Jim Crow Laws: State and local laws passed to separate the races in public facilities (schools, parks, hospitals, etc.) Segregation: Term used to describe this system of separation
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Honors American History
Jim Crow Laws: State and local laws passed to separate the races in public facilities (schools, parks, hospitals, etc.)
Segregation: Term used to describe this system of separation
Plessy v. Ferguson: Supreme Court case that legalized segregation as long as the facilities were “equal” (1896)
Jim Crow1. Jim Crow Laws
NAACP: (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) Formed in 1909 by WEB DuBois
NAACP GOAL: Full equality-nothing less! Despite an era of progressive reforms, very little support for this goal for even the reformers
WEB DuBOIS2. NAACP
Brown v. Board of Education: Case led by Thurgood Marshall (eventually became first African-American SC justice) struck down segregation on the grounds that “separate facilities were inherently unequal”. Marshall had won 29 cases regarding civil rights prior to this. He was key legal defender of the civil rights movement.
Reaction: This affected 21 states and reaction was mixed…some states would be no problem and others (Miss/Georgia) complete resistance
Thurgood Marshall3. The end of legalized segregation
In 1957, nine African-American students volunteered to integrate Little Rock Central High
Governor Orval Faubus ordered National Guard to turn them away
President Eisenhower put the National Guard under federal control and had soldiers protect the students while at school
Faubus eventually shut down Central High rather than allow integration
It was a victory that the students were able to attend an all-white school
Little Rock Nine4. The Little Rock Nine
On Dec. 1, 1955, Rosa Parks boarded a bus in Montgomery, Alabama in the “colored section”. As the bus filled up, Parks was asked to move for a white man and refused. This sparked a bus boycott that lasted 381 days.
Parks had been an NAACP officer that had been quietly but persistently fighting for civil rights
RESULT: Martin Luther King became the voice of the civil rights movement and SC outlawed segregation on buses
Rosa Parks5. Montgomery Bus Boycott
MLK’s civil rights strategy was called “soul force” (non-violent resistance)
SCLC: Southern Christian Leadership Conference: Group organized by King to use churches throughout the South to organize protests whose goal was to unite all African-Americans of all ages against second-class status
SNCC: An African-American protest group that originated on college campuses
SNCC organized a freedom ride into Birmingham, Alabama with the promise of police protection secured through President Kennedy.
When the riders arrived…no police, just an angry mob that beat them up and set the bus on fire (with people inside!)
This gave the civil rights movement the media boost it needed. News coverage denounced the beatings and showed whites abusing their power.
RESULT: Desegregation of all bus stations, waiting rooms, restrooms, and lunch counters.Birmingham
Sit-ins: the promise of police protection secured through President Kennedy. Protest strategies that were designed to get service in segregated public facilities. (EX: Sitting in at a whites only lunch counter)
Freedom Riders: Individuals who risked beatings or death to travel across the South in buses to protest segregation
March on Washington: August 28, 1963: 250,000 people peacefully assembled in the nations capital to listen to MLK address them with his now-famous “I have a dream” speech. President Kennedy vowed to make equal rights a priority, but was assassinated on November 22, 1963. President Johnson carried on JFK’s work.
Sit-ins:6. MLK’s Non-Violent Strategies
Born Malcolm Little, Malcolm X became a follower of the Nation of Islam (Black Muslims) while in prison
He believed in armed self-defense and a separation from whites (No brotherhood with whites)
Later in his life he journeyed to Mecca and changed his philosophy to embrace equality among all races but still felt that armed self-defense was justified
Malcolm X7. Malcolm X and Nation of Islam
Logo Nation of Islam (Black Muslims) while in prison
MLK objected to the radical changes the equality movement was headed and hoped to spread his idea of non-violence to poor in northern cities.
On April 3, 1968, King addressed a crowd that he may not see a world with equality, but he was not in fear…some speculate he knew death was near
On April 4, 1968, MLK stepped out onto a hotel balcony and was shot in the neck by James Earl Ray
MLK’s Funeral and James Earl Ray8. MLK Assassination
President Barack Obama…What do you think MLK would have done had he lived to see this?2011