CIVIL RIGHTS: A few last notes…
WATTS RIOTS OF 1965 AUGUST 11-16 MORE THAN 35 WERE KILLED, SEVERAL HUNDRED INJURED IN 6 DAY RIOTS IN LOS ANGELES NEIGHBORHOOD. ENTIRE BLOCKS WERE BURNED, AREA STORES LOOTED…
1966 MILITANT BLACK PANTHERS FORMED BY NEWTON AND SEALE—THEY HAD THEIR OWN NEWSPAPER AND CLAIMED THE RIGHT TO CARRY WEAPONS. THEY ALSO RAN A FREE BREAKFAST PROGRAM FOR AFRICAN-AMERICAN CHLDREN. THE DEMANDED GREATER OPPORTUNITIES AND BENEFITS INCLUDING FULL-EMPLOYMENT, DECENT HOUSING AND EDUCATION.
JUNE 12, 1967 LOVING V. VIRGINIA PROHIBITING INTERRACIAL MARRIAGE IS JUDGED UNCONSTITUTIONAL BY THE SUPREME COURT In 1958, two residents of Virginia, Mildred Jeter, a black woman, and Richard Loving, a white man, were married in the District of Columbia. The Lovings then returned to Virginia and was charged with violating state law., They were found guilty and sentenced to a year in jail (the trial judge agreed to suspend the sentence if the Lovings would leave Virginia and not return for 25 years).
RACE RIOTS OCCURRED IN WASHINGTON D.C. AND OTHER CITIES THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY AFTER KING’S DEATH IN D.C. RIOTING AND LOOTING OCCURRED. 6 WERE KILLED AND 350 INJURED DURING 2 DAYS OF DISORDER. RACIAL VIOLENCE OCCURRED IN 125 CITIES. BETWEEN 45 AND 50 PEOPLE DIED AND MORE THAN 2,600 WERE INJURED AND DAMAGE EXCEEDED $65,000,000.
SWANN V. CHARLOTTE-MECKLENBURG BOARD OF EDUCATION (1971) The Supreme Court upholds busing as a legitimate means for achieving integration of public schools…
1992—AFTER COPS SEEN ON VIDEOTAPE ARE FOUND NOT GUILTY OF BEATING RODNEY KING, RIOTS ERUPT IN LOS ANGELES…
SOME ACCOMPLISHMENTS AFTER 1965 1967 THURGOOD MARSHALL IS FIRST TO BE APPOINTED TO SUPREME COURT 1989 COLLIN POWELL APPOINTED FIRST BLACK JOINT-CHIEF-OF-STAFF FOR THE ARMED SERVICES/ IN 2001 NAMED FIRST AFRICAN-AMERICAN SECRETARY OF STATE 1989 FIRST ELECTED STATE GOVERNOR (VA) DOUGLAS WILDER 2005 CONDOLEEZA RICE IS FIRST AFRICAN-AMERICAN FEMALE SECRETARY OF STATE
IN 2008, BARACK OBAMA WAS THE FIRST AFRICAN-AMERICAN MAN TO BE ELECTED PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES.
AFFIRMATIVE ACTION PROGRMAS INCREASED MINORITY REPRESENTATION IN COLLEGES, PROFESSIONS, AND BUSINESSES. THIS ACT, HOWEVER, HAD SOME UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES. SOME SAW THIS AS REVERSE DISCRIMNINATION. IN 1978’s UNIVERSITY REGENTS V. BAKKE CASE, THE SUPREME COURT UPHELD AFFIRMATIVE ACTION, BUT NOT THE USE OF RACIAL QUOTAS.
LIKE AFRICAN AMERICANS, MEXICAN AMERICANS ALSO FACED DISCRIMINATION… IN THE 1960s, A CHICANO MOVEMENT EMERGED WITH ITS FOCUS ON ISSUES LIKE FARM WORKERS’ VOTING AND POLITICAL RIGHTS.
LEADERS OF THE MOVEMENT FOR HISPANIC CIVIL RIGHTS INCLUDED… HECTOR PEREZ GARCIA…SURGEON, WW2 VET. HE NOTICED MEXICANS IN HIS TEXAS COMMUNITY RESTRICTED FROM POOLS, HOSPITALS AND RESTAURANTS, AS WELL AS LIMITED VOTING AND EMPLOYMENT. WHEN A SOLDIER KILLED IN WWII WAS REFUSED BURIAL BY A TEXAS FUNERAL HOME, HE ARRANGED FOR BURIAL AT ARLINGTON NATIONAL CEMETARY. HE WAS THE FIRST MEXICAN AMERICAN TO SERVE ON THE U.S. COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS.
CESAR CHAVEZ…AN ORGANIZER OF FARM WORKERS IN CALIFORNIA. MIGRANT WORKERS USUALLY PERFORM SEASONAL FARM WORK AND TRAVEL FROM FARM TO FARM AS WORK APPEARS. CHAVEZ STARTED A GROUP TO SUPPORT FARM WORKERS’ RIGHTS AND DEMANDED INCREASED WAGES AND BETTER CONDITIONS. HE EMPHASIZED RELIANCE ON NONVIOLENT MEANS (STRIKES, FASTS…TO ACHIEVE GOALS.) HE ORGANIZED NATION-WIDE CONSUMER BOYCOTTS (EXAMPLE: GRAPES). DELORES HUERTA…WORKED CLOSELY WITH CHAVEZ. SHE HELPED FORM THE NATIONAL FARM WORKERS ASSOCIATION (UNITED FARM WORKERS) SHE SPEND HER LIFE USING STRIKES, MARCHES, BOYCOTTS AND HUNGER STRIKES TO CAMPAIGN FOR LEGISLATION TO EXTEND AID TO FARM WORKERS. IN THE 1980s SHE EXPANDED HER EFFORTS TO INCLUDE WOMEN’S RIGHTS, THE ENVIRONMENT, AND IMMIGRATION POLICY. SHE WAS AWARDED THE MEDAL OF FREEDOM BY PRESIDENT OBAMA IN 2012.
MEXICAN AMERICANS ALSO EXPRESSED THEMSELES THROUGH A GREAT APPRECIATION OF THEIR CULTURE. COPYING GREAT MEXICAN MURALISTS OF THE 1930s LIKE DIEGO RIVERA, MEXICAN-AMERICAN ARTISTS BEGAN PAINTING MURALS IN BARRIOS (ETHNIC NEIGHBORHOODS) THROUGHOUT THE SOUTHWEST IN THE 1960s. MURALS BECAME AN IMPORTANT ARTISTIC MEDIUM TO SUPPORT IDENTITY AND JUSTICE. IN EL PASO ALONE, MORE THAN 100 WALL MURALS WERE COMPLETED.
AMERICAN INDIANS ALSO PUSHED FOR CIVIL RIGHTS IN THE 1960S... IN 1963, THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT REVERSED A POLICY FROM 1953 THAT MADE RESERVATIONS THE RESPONSIBILITY OF STATE GOVENRMENTS. THEY BEGAN ENCOURAGING TRIBAL LIFE ON RESERVATIONS. THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 PROHIBITED DISCRIMINATION AGAINST NATIVE AMERICANS. IN 1970, NIXON ANNOUCNCED THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT WOULD HONOR ITS TREATY OBLIGATIONS. HOWEVER, AMERICAN INDIANS STILL FELT MISTREATED. UNDER THE SLOGAN “RED POWER,” THEY FORMED THE AMERICAN INDIAN MOVEMENT. THEY SOUGHT GREATER RESPECT FROM THEIR HERITAGE. THEY PUSHED FOR USAGE OF THE TERM “NATIVE AMERICAN” AND FOUGHT BIASED PORTRAYALS IN TEXTBOOKS, TELEVISION AND MOVIES. THEY GAINED ATTENTION BY OCCUPYING GOVERNMENT MONUMENTS ON ALCATRAZ ISLAND AND WOUNDED KNEE, SOUTH DAKOTA.
IMPORTANT COURT CASES EXTENDING CIVIL RIGHTS INCLUDED: MENDEZ V. WESTMINSTER SCHOOL DISTRICT (1947)… In some California schools, Mexican-American children were segregated. It was ruled in this case that separation within a race was not permitted if not required by a specific state law and avoided the issue of the Fourteenth Amendment. (Later that year California repealed its school segregations laws which applied to Japanese and Chinese children) DELGADO V. BASTROP ISD (1948)…Based on the previous case, the Texas Attorney General decided that segregation of Mexican-American children was illegal. Delgado sued Bastrop ISD, claiming that separation of Mexican-American children without a specific state law was a violation and the U.S. District Court agreed. Segregation of Mexican-American children was ordered to stop in Texas.
HERNANDEZ V. TEXAS (1954)…After a conviction for murder Hernandez appealed to the Supreme Court because no Mexican-American jurors had served in his county for more than 25 years. The court ruled that Mexican Americans were entitled as a class to protection under the 14th Amendment (he had the right to be tried by a jury from which his class was not excluded) WHITE V. REGESTER (1973)…Required single-member districts in Dallas and Bexar counties, so local groups could elect their own representatives. (Texas did not have the right to discriminate by setting up multi- member districts) EDGEWOOD ISD V. KIRBY (1984)…Required school finance to increase funding for students in poorer districts. (Kirby was the Texas Education Commissioner)