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Warm-Up. What was your advice to China in regard to their British Opium Problem? Why did you make that choice?. Let’s see what happened. Opium Wars. Why do you think the Opium Wars were so shocking to China?. Opium shifts the balance. Opium War 1839 – 1842 Treaty of Nanking 1842

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warm up
  • What was your advice to China in regard to their British Opium Problem?
  • Why did you make that choice?
opium wars
Opium Wars
  • Why do you think the Opium Wars were so shocking to China?
opium shifts the balance
Opium shifts the balance
  • Opium War 1839 – 1842
  • Treaty of Nanking 1842
    • Unequal trade agreement
    • Reparations of $21 mil. paid to Great Britain
    • Opened five new ports in China
    • Forced China to lower tariffs
    • Hong Kong given as a British Colony
impact of the opium war
Impact of the Opium War
  • The forced opening of China subjected China partially to foreign rule. It collapsed the Chinese economy, created social chaos and uprisings, and generated political instability.
  • The inflow of cheaper Western machine-made products shattered Chinese native industries.
  • The disastrous defeat of the Chinese army in the Opium War convinced every Chinese that China was no longer the "Heavenly Middle Kingdom".
  • Western ideas were brought in, and their consequences were felt at every level of society. Intellectuals believed that the root of China's weaknesses lay within its backward political structures.
taiping rebellion 1850 1864
Taiping Rebellion 1850 - 1864
  • A Christian sect, known as the Heavenly Kingdom rose up against the Qing
  • Led by Hong Xiuquan - believed he was the younger brother of Jesus Christ
  • Anti-Manchu rebellion. Qing need western military support to stop it


  • 20:00
impact of the taiping rebellion
Impact of the Taiping Rebellion
  • Unknown number of dead—some estimates are 20 million (U.S. Civil War at roughly same time claimed up to 750,000 lives)
  • Showed significant weakness of and dissatisfaction with Qing (Manchu) Dynasty
  • The Taiping Rebellion played a significant role in ending China's isolationist outlook.
self strengthening movement
Self-Strengthening Movement
  • Recognition by some elites of need to strengthen China
  • Attempt to apply western methods in science, language, diplomacy, etc.
  • Chinese emperor and bureaucracy still neo-Confucian and conservative
  • Will it work?
sino japanese war 1894 1895
Sino- Japanese War 1894 -1895
  • Treaty of Shimonoseki:
  • China cedes Taiwan
  • Recognizes Japanese hegemony over Korea
  • Allows Japan to establish industries in four treaty ports
the boxer rebellion 1899 1901
The Boxer Rebellion 1899 -1901
  • The Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists (became known as the Boxers) organized against the Chinese government and foreign intervention
boxers target westerners
Boxers target Westerners
  • Slaughtered Christian missionaries and took control of foreign embassies – concentrated efforts in the city of Beijing
  • Within a couple of months, an international force captured and occupied Beijing and forced the imperial government to agree to the most humiliating terms yet: the Boxer Protocol of 1901.
the boxer protocol
The Boxer Protocol
  • Under the Boxer Protocol:
  • Suspended civil service exams
  • Demanded reparations to Europeans
  • Extraterritoriality
  • Another in a series of humiliations and unequal treaties
with your tablemates
With your tablemates:
  • Why do you think China found it so difficult to respond to the western threat during the 19th century?