MOTIVATION Process Theories of Motivation
Process Theories of Motivation • “Process theories attempt to identify the relationship among the dynamic variables which make up motivation. These theories are concerned more about how behaviour is initiated, directed and sustained. Process theories place emphasis on the actual process of motivation” • Source: Laurie J Mullins (2005)
Expectancy Theory • Vroom (1965) • Porter and Lawler (1968-1972)
VROOM – EXPECTANCY THEORY • Vroom’s expectancy theory was the first to examine work motivation and is based on 3 key variables: • Valence - is the anticipated satisfaction gained from a particular outcome. It may be positive whereby the individual prefers to achieve a particular outcome than not achieve it; or negative where the individual prefers to avoid a particular outcome. Zero valence occurs where the individual is different. • Instrumentality – identifies outcomes as first level or second level in the valence level. First level outcomes are related to performance and second to need. The basic theory is that the strength of valence depends on whether a particular outcomes is seen as a route or path to other outcomes. • Expectancy identifies where an individual chooses between alternative behaviours that have uncertain outcomes where that choice is affected by preference for a particular outcome and the probability that the outcome will be achieved.
VROOM’S EXPENCTANCY THEORY MODEL OF BEHAVIOUR Instrumentality - extent to which first level outcomes lead to second level outcomes Second Level outcomes Need-related. For example Expectancy – perceived probability that effort will lead to first-level outcomes Praise High Wages First-level outcomes performance-related For example: Promotion Effort expended (motivational force) Level of performance High Productivity Friendship
ADAMS EQUITY THEORY • Takes perception into account • Input = effort • Equity is to do with equality of fairness at work, particularly in relation to effort and rewards.
Adams argues that a major input into job performance and satisfaction is the degree of equity (or inequity) that people perceive in their work situation. • Adams explain the specific process of how this motivation occurs. • Using the term ‘person’(any individual for whom equity or inequity exits) and ‘other’ (any individual with whom the person is in a relevant exchange relationship or with whom the person compares himself to him/herself) • Adams states that “inequity exists for person whenever he perceives that the ratio of his outcomes to inputs and the ratio of other’s outcomes to inputs is unequal”.
BOTH the inputs and outputs are based upon the person’s perception • Perceived Inputs: • Age • Gender • Education • Social status • Organisational position • Qualifications • How hard a person works • Outcomes: • Pay • Status • Promotion • Intrinsic interest in the job In Essence the ratio is based upon the person’s perception of what the person is giving and receiving
Equity Theory At Work • Equity theory points out the importance of the equitable distribution of rewards and compensation. People will make comparisons and be satisfied or dissatisfied based on how they feel they are being treated relative to others. It therefore suggests that managers should: • Recognise that employees with make comparisons. What each employee receives should be directly related to what he/she accomplishes. Managers should be able to explain and justify differences in rewards based on differences in accomplishments. • Always be aware of what others in the industry or field are receiving for work comparable to what their own employees are doing.
LOCKE – GOAL THEORY • Locke argues that goal setting is viewed as a motivational technique rather than a formal theory. • Challenging goals – lead to higher level of performance than simple and unchallenging goals. Difficult goals are also called ‘stretch’ goals because they encourage us to try harder. • Specific Goals – lead to a higher level of performance - SMART • Participation – in goal setting, particularly when this is expected, can increase performance by increasing commitment to those goals. • Knowledge of Results – is necessary for effective goal achievement. Feedback contains information and is also motivational
ACTIVITY Why do you think that goals are a motivating strategy work?
Suggested answer: • Goals direct the individuals attention and activity towards the task • Goals help individuals to direct effort towards achievement • Goals help build the persistence required for achievement • Goals encourage new learning strategies to ensure achievement • Goals that are more specific are more achievable than generalised goals • Goals are within the individual’s control and thus are flexible • Goals set more realistic expectations resulting in less anxiety and more motivation, and thus enhanced performance
GROUP ACTIVITY • In groups, research the following and present your findings to the class: • Porter and Lawler’s Expectancy Theory