Warm Up. With your partner, write a sentence (20 words or less) using two of the following terms to show your knowledge of genetic engineering: * Transgenic Organisms, Recombinant DNA, Recombinant Bacteria, Selective Breeding, PCR, Gel Electrophoresis, Genetically Modified. Changes Over Time.
With your partner, write a sentence (20 words or less) using two of the following terms to show your knowledge of genetic engineering:
* Transgenic Organisms, Recombinant DNA, Recombinant Bacteria, Selective Breeding, PCR, Gel Electrophoresis, Genetically Modified
SOL: BIO 8 a-e
The Father of Evolution
Carolus Linnaeus (1707 – 1778)
Believed in the “Fixity of Species” or that all species have remained unchanged throughout the history of the Earth.
Who was Linnaeus?
Who was Lyell?
If Lyell looked at fossils in a cross section of sediment, would the fossils more towards the surface be older or younger than those below? Why?
At the age of 22, he joined a 5 year expedition aboard the HMS Beagle to map the coast of South America
Isabela Island Tortoise: Dome shaped shell and short neck as vegetation is closer to the ground
Through his observations made in the Galapagos Islands, Charles Darwin formulated a theory of how species change over time, called natural selection.
1. Heritable Variation: Members of a population have heritable variations.(Inheritance of traits)
2. Overpopulation: In a population, more individuals are produced than the environment can support. They compete for food and shelter. (overpopulation- struggle for survival).
3. Survival of the Fittest: Some individuals have adaptive characteristics that enable them to survive and reproduce better than other individuals (survival of the fittest).
Fitness: Ability of an organism to survive and reproduce
4. Adaptation: An increasing number of individuals in succeeding generations have these adaptive characteristics
Darwin described his theory in the form of a long essay which he called
“On the Origin of Species”.
Concerned about the public’s response to his ideas(remember what happened to Galileo)
Arranged to publish his work … AFTER HIS DEATH !!
He finally decided to publish his essay, “On The Origin of Species” in 1859
At age 50 (1859)
At age 65 (1874)
What was the name of Darwin’s book?
On what islands did Darwin make observations that lead him to develop his ideas about natural selection?
Explain how natural selection can be observed in a population.
1.Favorable; improves a species’ ability to exist in its environment
Thousands tomillions of yearsof natural selection
Example of artificial selection in plants: five vegetables derived from wild mustard
Hundreds tothousands of yearsof breeding(artificial selection)
Scorpion in amber
Geographic isolation/separation can lead to speciation (emergence of a new species)
EX.: appendix in humans, whale pelvis, tiny snake pelvic and limb bones, and the eyes in cave-dwelling salamanders and fish that are completely blind.