Chapter 1 Our Changing Environment
IMPORTANT DATESChapter 1 HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENTS By next class: Study for Common Test Read p 4 (2002 World Summit) By Wednesday 9/7: Read p 7-17 and take notes Monday 9/12: CH 1 TEST CH 1 HW due
GREEN ARCHETECTURE Encompasses environmental considerations such as energy conservation, improved indoor air quality, water conservation, and recycled/reused building materials. Examples: Ardrey Kell High Mallard Creek High
Lewis Center, Oberlin College • Earth-coupled heat pump • Motion sensors to shut off lights • Wastewater recycled for toilet use • Reused building materials
Lewis Center, Cont. • Photovoltaic (PV) Cells
Lewis Center, Cont. • Triple-paned windows
Lewis Center, Cont. • Landscape mimics the natural ecosystems that were originally in the area
Environmental Science • Interdisciplinary study of humanity’s relationship with other organisms and the nonliving physical environment. • Pollution • Any alteration of air, water, or soil that harms the health, survival, or activities of humans and other living organisms.
Pollution • Affects the environment in 3 ways… • Chemical Nature • Concentration • Persistence • Pollution Prevention vs. Pollution Cleanup…. Which is cheaper?
Goals of Environmental Science • Establish principles about how the natural world functions • Develop viable solutions to environmental problems • Make recommendations to elected officials • Identify, understand, and solve environmental problems that we have created
Ecology • Discipline of biology that studies the interrelationships between organisms and their environment • Use ecology to address human population growth & consequences of that growth
ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY • Ability to meet humanity’s current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. • Ecological Resource • Economic Resource • Renewable Resource (perpetual resource) • Potentially Renewable Resource
Environmental Sustainability is based on… • What are the effects of our actions on the environment? • Resources are limited – can we live within those limits? • Do we understand the costs to the environment and society? • Can we all share the responsibility? • Solar Capital & Earth Capital…
Solar Capital & Earth Capital • We are all interdependent & interconnected to nature The sun provides the energy for life. • Survival, health, and economies depend on nature • We are depleting Earth’s natural capital….what is that?
IBESS!!! 3 Types of Natural Capital • RENEWABLE • Living species, ecosystems, etc. • Self-producing and self-maintaining. • Uses solar energy & photosynthesis • Can yield marketable goods (wood fiber, food, etc) • Can provide unaccounted essential services when left in place (climate regulation, air purification, etc) • REPLENISHABLE • Groundwater, ozone layer, etc. • Nonliving, but also usually dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal. • NONRENEWABLE • Fossil fuels, minerals, metals, etc. • Analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.
Why aren’t we sustainable?? • Using nonrenewable resources as if they are infinite • Using renewable resources faster than they can be replenished • Polluting the environment with toxins as if Earth can absorb them infinitely • Population continues to grow despite the limited resources & ability to sustain us
Why can’t we stop living “non-sustainably”? • Interacting ecological, societal, economic factors • Inadequate scientific understanding of the environment and how we affect it • Our Challenge: • Meet our immediate needs AND • Protect the environment in the longterm
Two Views of Resource Use From: Our Ecological Footprint, by Mathis Wackernagle & William E. Rees
Sustainability must be a BALANCE of quality of life & carrying capacity. Discuss this diagram. Where do we normally exist? What’s the goal??? http://www.coloradocollege.edu/dept/ev/courses/footprint/Footprint.htm
EVOLUTION of PEOPLE http://www.ezl.com/~fireball/evolution___of___man.htm
Evolution of People… (1) Hunter Gatherers • Until ~12,000 years ago • Nomadic • “Earth Wisdom” • 3 energy sources: • Sun, Fire, Muscle Power • More advanced h-g’s had greater impact on their environment than earlier h-g’s • Attempted sustainability • low resource use & working with nature
Evolution of People… (2) Agricultural Revolution • 10,000 – 12,000 years ago • Gradually settled into communities • Urbanization • Larger families • Farming (initially only subsistence farming) • Cultivate plants & domesticated animals
Evolution of People… (2) Agricultural Revolution • In what ways was the environment impacted? • Use of domesticated animals required _____ energy • Birth Rates ____ due to more reliable food sources • Large areas were cleared & irrigation systems built • People began accumulating material goods • Farmers grew more than their families needed • Urbanization! • Survival of animals/plants once vital to humanity became less important • Focused on taming/managing nature, rather than working with nature.
Evolution of People… (3) Industrial Revolution • Began ~1870s Production, commerce, trade expanded rapidly • Resource dependence shift (renewable to nonrenewable) • New machines = large-scale production • More food and supplies available… • What happens to population?
Evolution of People… (3) Industrial Revolution How do you think this affected the environment???
Evolution of People… (4) Technological Revolution • Our current cultural shift • New technology allows people to deal with more information more rapidly • Environmental impact of this revolution is not yet clear…
Evolution of People… (4) Technological Revolution From an Environmental Perspective… • How is the Techno-Revolution POSITIVE? • How is the Techno-Revolution NEGATIVE?
MEETING THE CHALLENGE2002 World Summit • Background: 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development (Brazil) • Focused on… • Pollution • Deterioration of atmosphere and oceans • Species diversity decline • Deforestation • Came up with Agenda 21 – The Sustainable Development Plan
MEETING THE CHALLENGE2002 World Summit • Agenda 21 – The Sustainable Development Plan • Sustainable Development • Recommended >2500 actions to deal with our most urgent environmental, health, and social problems • 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development (South Africa) • Assessed progress/failures of Agenda 21, finding…
2002 World Summit • Not much changed between 1992 and 2002 – most countries are focused on other issues (terrorism, foreign policy, etc) rather than the environment • Why didn’t Agenda 21 make more of a difference? • Agreements don’t help unless the world’s nations enforce them!! • Few international changes, but many local changes! • More stringent air pollution policy • >100 countries enacted sustainable development plans
Our Impact on the Environment • Biggest human impact on the environment is due to……… • POPULATION INCREASE!! • Growing quickly!! • 1960 – 3 Billion • 1975 – 4 Billion • 1987 – 5 Billion • 1999 – 6 Billion • Won’t slow down quickly – education is slow!
Poverty • EXTREME POVERTY • unable to meet basic needs (adequate food, clothing, shelter, education, and health) • World Bank estimate: 2.8 Billion people • POVERTY • <$1/day per capita • Low life expectancy, illiteracy, inadequate access to healthcare, safe water, balanced nutrition • World Bank estimate: 1.2 Billion people • 828 Million people get <80% daily recommended calories (UN Estimate)
Population Stabilization?? • World population may stabilize by 2100 • Why? • Drop in Fertility Rate (family planning) (~3 children/family) • Will continue to drop • World population should be ~7.9B – 10.9B by 2100 Think…. - Can Earth support us indefinitely? - Population is just as important as Consumption!! • Developed vs. Developing
Population, Consumption, and Environmental Impact • Everything comes from somewhere, and must be returned in some form. • Environmental Impact I=PAT • I = environmental impact • P = # people • A = affluence per person(measure of consumption or amt of resources used) • T = environmental effects of technologies used to obtain & consume resources(resources needed and wastes produced) • Example: Question 9, Page 21 (R&B)
IPAT Example (page 21 R&B) Use the IPAT equation to calculate the environmental impact in terms of CO2 emissions per year at the beginning of the 21st century, when there were 6 billion people, an average of 0.1 motor vehicles per person, and 5.4 tons of CO2 emitted by each car per year. Then make a similar calculation for the year 2050, based on these projections: a population of 10 billion people, 0.4 cars per person, and CO2 emissions per vehicle similar to what we have today (that is, no technological improvements). ANSWERS ON NEXT SLIDE How might we hold global CO2 emissions from motor vehicles to 2000 levels in the year 2050?
Answers: • 2000: I = P x A x T I = (6 billion people)(0.1 cars/person)(5.4 tons CO2/car/year) I = 3.24 billion tons CO2/year • 2050: I = P x A x T I = (10 billion people)(0.4 cars/person)(5.4 tons CO2/car/year) I = 21.6 billion tons CO2/year
IPAT Equation • Must use it with care – we don’t always fully understand the environmental effects of our technologies… it’s tough to measure. • Why is the IPAT equation so volatile? • Each variable changes • Why is the IPAT equation so useful? • Helps us identify what we don’t know about our environmental impact “As human numbers and consumption increase worldwide, so does humanity’s impact on Earth, posing new challenges to us all.”
What’s Your EQ?(…your Environmental Quotient) Answer the quiz questions as honestly as possible. We’ll do it again at the end of the course to see if/how your values have changed! PUT YOUR EQ IN YOUR PORTFOLIO AT THE END OF CLASS.
Calculate YOUR Footprint Go to www.myfootprint.org/ and take the online quiz to calculate your footprint. Then recalculate, experimenting with the settings to see how the footprint changes… different country, different diet, etc. Write down your settings & results. Discussion: How are we different? Why? What settings did you change? How did it impact your footprint? What changes can we realistically make to minimize our footprints? What do our results mean for Earth in the long run?
HOMEWORK Read pages 7- 17 in your text and fill in the notes on the • Endocrine Disrupters • Declining Commercial Fisheries • Declining Bird Populations • Re-introduction of Native Species • Invasive Species • Stratospheric Ozone Depletion • Global Warming • Deforestation BE PREPARED FOR A QUIZ NEXT CLASS ON THESE CASE STUDIES.
QUIZ TIME! Chapter 1 Case Studies Pages 7-17
NPR Clip Shade-grown coffee and bird populations http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=129800164 (~6minutes)
Case Study Extensions • Get in eight teams. • Each team reads one of eight case studies related to those in Chapter 1. Become experts! • When done, each team must teach the class about your topic. • After each presentation, the class will discuss how this topic relates to the case study in Chapter 1. • Use these questions to guide your discussion: • Why did Mrs. Toth choose this topic to supplement your book’s reading? • How does this relate to environmental science? • How does this relate to the case study in the book?
HOMEWORK • Write at least two quiz-type questions that review today’s case studies (from the book and the articles). • Format: open-ended, not multiple-choice • You’ll play “popcorn” next class with these questions. Someone asks a question, then throws the ball to another student for the answer. The person who correctly answers the question asks the next one. • EVERYONE participates!
Ethics, Values, and Worldviews: Addressing Environmental Problems ETHICS branch of philosophy that is derived through the logical application of human values. VALUES Principles that an individual or society considers important or worthwhile. Can change as society changes ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS Applied ethics considering the moral basis of environmental responsibility and how far this responsibility extends. How should we relate to nature? How do we balance short-term goals with long-term goals?
Ethics, Values, & Worldviews Cont. 2 Environmental Worldviews… Western Worldview “Expansionist Worldview”, “Frontier Ethic/Attitude” or “Atomistic” Deep Ecology Worldview “Sustainable Development Ethic” or “Holistic”
Western Worldview Conquer & exploit nature as quickly as possible Humans are superior to nature Our success depends on how well we can understand, control, andmanage the earth’s life-support systems for our benefit All economic growth is good! (mo’ money!!) Unrestricted resource use, increased economic growth, expanding industry, accumulation of wealth, unlimited consumption of goods APES!!!
Deep Ecology Worldview Leaders of the movement: John Muir Theodore Roosevelt Aldo Leopold Rachel Carson APES!!!