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  1. Warm-up • How do you plan to prepare for tomorrow’s test? Include at least 3 specific things that you plan to do. • Is there anything that you are still confused about from this unit?

  2. Test Review Chapters 1 and 2

  3. What do you need to know? Latitude and Longitude Time Zones Maps and Topographic Maps Units and Measurement Scientific Method/Nature of Science Branches of Earth Science

  4. Review notes and website • Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 Study Guide • Review powerpoints on class website • Review notes and handouts (posted on class website if you can’t find yours) • Unit 0 Study Guide and fact sheet

  5. Latitude and Longitude • What are they? What are the reference points for each? • Prime Meridian and equator • Be able to plot points on a map given latitude and longitude • Cardinal directions (N, S, E, W)

  6. The equator is at 0° latitude. It is neither north nor south. It is at the center between north and south. 40° N is the 40° line of latitude north of the equator. 40° S is the 40° line of latitude south of the equator. LatitudeThe North Pole is at 90° NThe South Pole is at 90° S

  7. 60° W is the 60° line of longitude west of the Prime Meridian. The Prime Meridian is located at 0°. It is neither east or west 60° E is the 60° line of longitude east of the Prime Meridian. LongitudeLines of longitude begin at the Prime Meridian. W E

  8. What are the coordinates for Chicago, New Orleans, Buenos Aires, Paris, Baghdad and Sydney?

  9. Chicago (45N, 90W) New Orleans (30N,90W) Buenos Aires (30S, 60W) Paris (55N, 15E) Baghdad (35N, 45E) Sydney (35S, 165E)

  10. Time Zones • How does travelling east change the time? What about travelling west? • International Date Line: What happens when you cross it going east? What about when you go west? • If you know the time in one zone, be able to determine the time in another zone.

  11. LONGITUDE AND TIME • The world rotates (spins) 360° in 24 hours. 360° / 24 hours = 15° per hour • The world has 24 time zones, each l5° apart. IN GENERAL, THERE IS A 1 HOUR TIME DIFFERENCE FOR EVERY 15° OF LONGITUDE

  12. ANOTHER CHEESY SAYING • EAST INCREASE Time is forward to all places to the east • WEST LESS Time is backward to all places to the west

  13. World Time Zones

  14. If it is 3 PM in New Orleans, what time is it in Buenos Aires?

  15. INTERNATIONAL DATE LINE180° • SEPARATES CALENDAR DAYS. America to Asia – gain a day Asia to America – lose a day

  16. Maps/Topographic Maps • Interpret a legend • Interpret a topographic map • How do you make a profile using the map? • Contour lines, contour intervals, index contours, hachures

  17. MAPS • A MAP is a flat representation of a 3 dimensional object. • All flat maps distort either the shapes or the landmasses because Earth is a curved, three-dimensional object

  18. Contours • Contour lines are lines of equal value (e.g. topographic contours are lines of equal elevation) • A Contour interval is the height between two contour lines

  19. Steep or flat? You can tell whether a region on a map is steep terrain (hill/mountain) or relatively flat (plain) by looking at contour lines. HOW? If the lines are close together, that means there is change in elevation. PSC 121 Prince George's Community College

  20. Which map is steeper? B A

  21. Units and Measurement • Understand length, area, volume, mass, density, temperature • Know the SI units for each • Unit conversions (1kg = ?mg) • Know the ladder!!!!! (and how to use the ladder method)

  22. Units and Measurement • SI units • Kilograms – mass • Meters – length • Seconds – time • Liters or meters3 – volume • Density = mass/volume

  23. Mass • Mass is a measurement of the quantity of matter in an object Just because an object is large, it doesn’t have to have a lot of matter – think of a balloon

  24. Density • Density is the mass per unit of volume of a material. • Units are g/mL or g/cm3 • Different materials have different densities. • MORE dense materials sink, LESS dense materials rise

  25. Units and Measurement • Know the ladder and how to use it!

  26. Distance Conversions • How many millimeters are in 2.40 m? • How many meters are equal to 742 cm?

  27. Scientific Method/Nature of Science What is the cycle/steps of the scientific method? Dependent vs. Independent Variable Control Group vs. Experimental Group What is science? Theory, law, hypothesis

  28. What is Science? • Science uses observation and investigation • Observations are recorded • Experiments are conducted • Models are tested • Investigations follow a general pattern called the SCIENTIFIC METHOD

  29. Scientific Method/Nature of Science 1. Ask a question 2. Do background research 3. Construct a hypothesis 4. Test your hypothesis by doing an experiment 5. Analyze your data/draw a conclusion 6. Report your results

  30. Experiment Vocabulary • An experiment contains variables and controls • A VARIABLE is something that can have more than one value. It changes, or varies. • A CONSTANT is something that does not change. • A CONTROL (or control group)is something to which the variable is not applied. Results are compared to the control.

  31. Theories • A THEORY is an explanation based on the results of many investigations • A theory can be disproved, or can change, but a theory is NOT just a guess Examples of theories: Atomic Theory Cell Theory Newton’s Theory of Gravitation Big Bang Theory

  32. A LAW is a statement about what will happen under certain conditions – from observations! • A law does not explain why or how • A theory can explain a law • Examples of laws: • Newton’s Laws of Motion "why" "how"

  33. Branches of Earth Science Astronomy Meteorology geology oceanography What does each branch study?