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Warm Up Create a concept map for the nervous system (use your notes from yesterday) Please get your homework out!
Reading Quiz • How many lobes does the brain have? • Wernicke’s Area and Broca’s Area are both involved in ___________. • List TWO parts of the brain and their functions (what they do).
The Brain! Divided into 3 parts: • Brainstem • Cortex • Structures under the cortex
Brainstem Medulla • Controls life sustaining functions • Heart beat • Breathing • swallowing
Brainstem Pons • Controls sleep, dreaming, coordinating movements Reticular Formation • Attention, arousal, awareness
Brainstem Cerebellum - coordinate voluntary movements and balance.
The Limbic System The Limbic Systemisa doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebrum, associated with emotions such as fear, aggression and drives for food and sex. It includes the hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, and hypothalamus
The Limbic System Thalamus • Receives sensory information • Processes information • Passes to cortex
The Limbic System Hypothalamus • Interacts with endocrine system • Regulates body temp, thirst, hunger, sleep
The Limbic System Hippocampus • Long term memories • Location of objects
The Limbic System Amygdala • Linked to emotions, fear, and anger
Cortex • % into R and L hemispheres • Communicate via corpus callosum • Each hemisphere is % into 4 parts
Structure of the Cortex Each brain hemisphere is divided into four lobes that are separated by prominent fissures. These lobes are the frontal lobe (forehead), parietal lobe (top to rear head), occipital lobe (back head) and temporal lobe (side of head).
Brain Lobes Occipital Lobe: • At back; visual information Parietal Lobe: • sensory- touch, body tempt, taste Temporal Lobe: • Behind temples- auditory Frontal Lobe: - Planning personality, decision making, language, motor functions
Functions of the Cortex Motor Cortex - at the rear of the frontal lobes that control voluntary movements. Sensory Cortex (parietal cortex) receives information from skin surface and sense organs.
Association Areas More intelligent animals have increased “uncommitted” or association areas of the cortex.
Language Broca’s Area • Left frontal lobe • Language production Wernicke’s Area - Comprehension of language
Language Aphasiais an impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impaired speaking) or to Wernicke’s area (impaired understanding).
Reward Center Rats cross an electrified grid for self-stimulation when electrodes are placed in the reward (hypothalamus) center (top picture). When the limbic system is manipulated, a rat will navigate fields or climb up a tree (bottom picture). Sanjiv Talwar, SUNY Downstate
Visual Function The functional MRI scan shows the visual cortex is active as the subject looks at faces. Courtesy of V.P. Clark, K. Keill, J. Ma. Maisog, S. Courtney, L.G. Ungerleider, and J.V. Haxby, National Institute of Mental Health
Auditory Function The functional MRI scan shows the auditory cortex is active in patients who hallucinate.
Specialization & Integration Brain activity when hearing, seeing, and speaking words