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STUDY of the EARTH’s Movements. 6 th Grade Science . What is mathematical shape is the Earth? . Sphere. What does it mean when an object is a sphere? . Sphere : a round, 3-dimensional object . Its surface is the same distance from its center at all points .

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### STUDY of the EARTH’s Movements

• What does it mean when an object is a sphere?

Sphere: a round, 3-dimensional object

• Its surface is the same distance from its center at all points

What are other examples of spheresbesides the Earth?

There were many people who suspected that the Earth took the shape of a sphere.

Aristotle –around 350 B.C.

• Believed that the Earth was a perfect sphere and that all planets orbited around it

Aristotle noticed that the Earth cast a curved shadowon the moon during an eclipse

*Besides Aristotle, many other individuals suspected that the Earth was round. *How did they start suspecting this?

Certain the Earth was round. sailors also believed that the Earth was round. Why?

Sailors noticed that in approaching ships, the tops of ships came across the horizon and appeared first

Is the Earth a came across the horizon and appeared firstperfect sphere?

No! came across the horizon and appeared first

• ItBULGESslightly at the equator

• It is FLATTENEDat the poles

• Not a PERFECT sphere

Did you know that the movements of the Earth cause the came across the horizon and appeared firstday and night and the seasons?

What would you guess causes came across the horizon and appeared firstday and night?

Earth’s came across the horizon and appeared firstRotation

• Rotation: the action of spinning around an axis or center

Earth’s came across the horizon and appeared firstRotation

• How does the Earth’s rotation cause day and night?

As the Earth came across the horizon and appeared firstrotates, part of the Earth faces away from the Sun, and faces dark outer space. This is what causes day and night.

How long does it take for the Earth to came across the horizon and appeared firstrotate once around its axis?

24 Hours! came across the horizon and appeared first

While it is came across the horizon and appeared firstday in the United States, it will be night in other parts of the world

You can’t feel the Earth’s came across the horizon and appeared firstrotation, but standing on top of the Earth is like riding a giant spinning top

As the Earth came across the horizon and appeared firstrotates, you can see the Sun come into view at daybreak.

Earth continues to spin, making it seem as if the came across the horizon and appeared firstSun moves across the sky until it sets at night

During night, your area of the Earth has came across the horizon and appeared firstrotated so that it is on the opposite side of the Sun *We can’t see the Sun anymore, but the Sun is still lighting up the moon.

What is the Earth’s came across the horizon and appeared firstaxis?

Earth’s axis came across the horizon and appeared first: the imaginary vertical line around which Earth spins

The Earth’s axis is tilted came across the horizon and appeared first23.5 degrees

Because of this, the Earth is like a came across the horizon and appeared firstspinning top that is spinning slightly to the side.

The tilt of the Earth’s axis is actually very important. came across the horizon and appeared firstWhat does the tilt of its axis cause?

The tilt of Earth’s axis causes the came across the horizon and appeared firstseasons! It causes the seasons as it is revolvingaround the Sun

REVOLUTION came across the horizon and appeared first: to revolve is to move in a circular path around something else

• Remember that the Earth revolves or orbits the Sun in the shape of an ellipse

Earth’s came across the horizon and appeared firstaxial tilt and ellipse-shaped revolution causes the seasons

Find North America: When is it getting the most came across the horizon and appeared firstsunlight?

The Sun shines more brightly on either the Northern and Southern hemisphere depending on the season

Radiation from the Sun Southern hemisphere depending on the season

• Earth’s axial tilt causes the Sun’s radiation to strike the hemispheres at different angles

• In Summer, the Northern Hemisphere is tilted toward the sun, so it is getting more direct sunlight

During winter in North America, the Sun is still shining, but because of axial tilt, North America is facing away from it and not getting very much light.

Daylight hours are longer for the hemisphere that is tilted toward the Sun because that hemisphere has more exposure to light for a longer period of time

What is an Equinox? toward the Sun because that hemisphere has

Equinox toward the Sun because that hemisphere has : occurs when the Sun is directly above the Earth’s equator

Equinox toward the Sun because that hemisphere has : occurs 2 times per year

• During an equinox, the number of daylight hours and nighttime hours is nearly equal all over the world

• Northern Hemisphere: The Sun reaches the spring equinox on March 20-21, and the fall equinox occurs on September 22-23

What is a toward the Sun because that hemisphere has Solstice?

Solstice toward the Sun because that hemisphere has : either the longest day of the year or the shortest day of the year

A toward the Sun because that hemisphere has Solstice is when the Sun is at its greatest distance from hitting the equator

• Summer solstice in the Northern Hemisphere = June 21  longest day of the year

• Winter solstice in the Northern Hemisphere = December 21  shortest day of the year

Look at the Yellow Dots. Where are the Solstices? toward the Sun because that hemisphere has

How long does one toward the Sun because that hemisphere has Revolution around the Sun take for planet Earth?

365 ¼ days toward the Sun because that hemisphere has

• 4 Seasons