Semester 2 Exam Review. Review these slides first. Processes that Shape the Earth. Explain the slow movement of material within the Earth Interior Convection and conduction Gravitational forces. Geology. The study of the planet Earth. Convection. Hot Magma rises because of convection.
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Review these slides first Processes that Shape the Earth
Explain the slow movement of material within the Earth • Interior Convection and conduction • Gravitational forces
Geology • The study of the planet Earth.
Convection Hot Magma rises because of convection.
Explain the results of plate tectonic activity • Magma generation • Igneous intrusion • Metamorphism • Volcanic action • Earth quakes • Faulting and folding
According to the theory of plate tectonics, the earth’s outer shell is not one solid piece of rock. Instead the earth’s crust is broken into a number of moving plates. The plates vary in size and thickness.
Plate tectonics This is how the plates have moved over the last 750 million years.
Igneous Intrusion Igneous Intrusion: youngest part of picture
Volcanic Action Map of Active Volcanoes
Volcanic Action Magma flows from a pocket to the top where it erupts
Earthquakes • Caused by Faults along the plate boundaries Divergent plate boundary Convergent boundary Transform plate boundary
Divergent Boundary • When plates move away from each other.
Convergent Boundary • Plates come together or collide. • One plate goes under (subduction) another plate • Mountain Building
Transform Boundary • Plates slide past each other in opposite directions • California San Andreas Fault
Earthquakes The map below locates earthquakes around the globe. They are not evenly distributed; the boundaries between the plates grind against each other, producing most earthquakes. So the lines of earthquakes help define the plates:
Earthquakes • View the following link to see the plates move. • Click the Earthquakes tab at the top of the website http://msnbcmedia.msn.com/i/msnbc/Components/Interactives/Technology_Science/Science/Earthquakes/zFlashAssets/Earthquakes_v21.swf
Describe that stars produce energy from nuclear reactions and that processes in stars have led to the formation of all elements beyond hydrogen and helium.
A Star is Born! • This diagram illustrates the earliest journeys of water in a young, forming star system. • Stars are born out of icy cocoons of gas and dust. • As the cocoon collapses under its own weight in an inside-out fashion, a stellar embryo forms at the center surrounded by a dense, dusty disk. • The stellar embryo "feeds" from the disk for a few million years, while material in the disk begins to clump together to form planets
A star is just a giant ball of burning gas. • It generates energy through nuclear fusion, where it fuses two lightweight particles into a heavier one. • Our sun for example is in the Hydrogen burning stage, where the primary fusion fuel is Hydrogen.
The core of the sun, where the fusion takes place, is overlaid by a huge amount of hot hydrogen and helium gas.
Your Cosmic Connection to the Elements James Lochner (USRA) & Suzanne Pleau Kinnison (AESP), NASA/GSFC
All X-ray Energies Silicon Calcium Iron Supernova • Explosive power of a supernova: • Disperses elements created in large stars. • Creates new elements, especially those heavier than Iron.
Descrbe the current scientific evidence that supports the theory of the explosive expansion of the universe, the Big Bang, over 10 billion years ago.
What is the big bang theory? • The big bang theory is the theory that the universe started from a single point, and has been expanding ever since. • This has been well-established by observations, such as the apparent movement of galaxies away from us.
Evidence • First of all, we are reasonably certain that the universe had a beginning. • Second, galaxies appear to be moving away from us at speeds proportional to their distance. This is called "Hubble's Law," This observation supports the expansion of the universe and suggests that the universe was once compacted. • Third, if the universe was initially very, very hot as the Big Bang suggests, we should be able to find some remnant of this heat. In 1965, Radioastronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson discovered a 2.725 degree Kelvin (-454.765 degree Fahrenheit, -270.425 degree Celsius) Cosmic Microwave Background radiation (CMB) which pervades the observable universe. • Finally, the abundance of the "light elements" Hydrogen and Helium found in the observable universe are thought to support the Big Bang model of origins.
Explain that gravitational forces govern the characteristics and movement patterns of the planets, comets and astroids in the solar system.
Why do Planets go around the sun? • The lighter object orbits the heavier one, and the Sun is, by far, the heaviest object in the solar system. • The Sun is 1000 times heavier than the largest planet, Jupiter • The Sun's gravity pulls on the planets. • Inertia!
Why don’t the planets fall into the sun? • In addition to falling toward the Sun, the planets are moving sideways. • This is the same as if you have a weight on the end of a string. If you swing it around, you are constantly pulling it toward your hand.
c. the width of a book Which distance can be most accurately measured with a ruler? • a. the length of a river • b. the distance between two cities • c. the width of a book • d. the size of an object under a microscope
d. 1000 One kilometer equals 1000 meters. What does the prefix kilo- mean? • a. 1 c. 100 • b. 10 d. 1000
b. km/h What is the most appropriate SI unit to express the speed of a cyclist in a 10-km race? • a. km/s c. m/s • b. km/h d. cm/h
a. by driving east 3 blocks from the starting point A person drives north 3 blocks, then turns east and drives 3 blocks. The driver then turns south and drives 3 blocks. How could the driver have made the distance shorter while maintaining the same displacement? • a. by driving east 3 blocks from the starting point • b. by driving north 1 block and east 4 blocks • c. by driving west 3 blocks from the starting point • d. by driving back to the starting point by the same route
b. acceleration. The slope of a speed-time graph indicates • a. direction. c. velocity. • b. acceleration. d. speed.
a. the amount of time needed to travel the distance. Speed is the ratio of the distance an object moves to • a. the amount of time needed to travel the distance. • b. the direction the object moves. • c. the displacement of the object. • d. the motion of the object.
b. the front seat of the car A passenger in the rear seat of a car moving at a steady speed is at rest relative to • a. the side of the road. • b. the front seat of the car. • c. a pedestrian on the corner ahead. • d. the wheels of the car.
b. at a particular instant. Instantaneous speed is measured • a. at the starting point. • b. at a particular instant. • c. when the object reaches its destination. • d. over the duration of the trip.
c. speed. The slope of a line on a distance-time graph is • a. distance. c. speed. • b. time. d. displacement.
d. at rest. A horizontal line on a distance-time graph means the object is • a. moving at a constant speed. • b. slowing down. • c. moving faster. • d. at rest.
c. 20 m/s A distance-time graph indicates that an object moves 100 m in 4 s and then remains at rest for 1 s. What is the average speed of the object? • a. 50 m/s c. 20 m/s • b. 25 m/s d. 100 m/s
c. acceleration. The rate at which velocity changes is called • a. speed. c. acceleration. • b. vectors. d. motion.
c. traveling around a circular track Which example describes constant acceleration due ONLY to a change in direction? • a. increasing speed while traveling around a curve • b. an object at rest • c. traveling around a circular track • d. an object in free fall
c. –6 m/s2 An object moving at 30 m/s takes 5 s to come to a stop. What is the object’s acceleration? • a. 30 m/s2 c. –6 m/s2 • b. –30 m/s2 d. 6 m/s2