Bio & E/E Warm-Up: 8/26/10 • FACT: Biology is the study of life. • FACT: Earth science is the study of Earth’s processes. • ?: Where did you go to middle school? What was the name of your science teacher last year?
Bio Warm-Up: 8/27/10 • FACT: The cytoskeleton in a cell is like a human’s skeleton—it provides strength and structure. • ?: What are the six steps of the scientific method? (PROBLEM, HYPOTHESIS, PROCEDURE, EXPERIMENT, RECORD DATA/OBSERVATIONS, RESULTS/CONCLUSION)
E/E Warm-Up: 8/27/10 • FACT: The two most common gases in Earth’s atmosphere are nitrogen and oxygen. • ?: Which of the following terms are scientific (SI) ²耀its of measurement? • METER, GALLON, LITER, MILE, KILOGRAM, POUND
Bio Warm-Up: 8/30/10 • FACT: An enzyme is a protein that increases the rate of a chemical reaction and is involved in nearly all metabolic processes. • ?: What is the difference between a qualitative observation and a quantitative observation? (QUAL. OB. = DESCRIBES APPEARANCE AND PROPERTIES…QUAN. OB. = DESCRIBES HOW MUCH, MEASUREMENTS)
E/E Warm-Up: 8/30/10 • FACT: The earth’s hydrosphere includes all of the water on the planet. • ?: If I wanted to find the mass of an apple, what SI unit would I use? (GRAM) • ?: If I wanted to find the weight of an apple, what SI unit would I use? (NEWTON)
Bio Warm-Up: 8/31/10 • FACT: Viruses can reproduce only when they are inside a host cell. • ?: In an experiment, what is a control? What is an independent variable?
E/E Warm-Up #1: 8/31/10 • FACT: Earth’s layers (from the inside out) include the inner core, outer core, mantle, & crust. • ?: In an experiment, what is a control? What is an independent variable?
E/E Warm-Up #2: 8/31/10 • FACT: Topographic maps display elevation changes on Earth’s surface. • ?: A wooden block has a mass of 10g and a volume of 5cm3. What is the density?
Bio Warm-Up: 9/1/10 • FACT: A mutation is a change in a DNA strand. A mutation is caused by a mutagen. • ?: What is a biotic factor within an ecosystem? (SOMETHING ALIVE OR FORMERLY ALIVE…ANIMAL) An abiotic factor? (NOT ALIVE & NEVER WAS) Give examples of each. (POLLUTANTS, ROCK, AIR, WATER, WEATHER)
E/E Warm-Up #1: 9/1/10 • FACT: Cartographers use Global Positioning Systems (GPS) to create accurate maps. • ?: A map scale displays 1cm:30km. If Winston-Salem and Durham are 3cm apart on a N.C. map, how far apart are they in reality? (90km)
E/E Warm-Up #2: 9/1/10 • FACT: Time zones must exist because the Earth spins once every 24 hours. Seasons exist because the Earth sits upon a tilted axis. • ?: What is the westernmost city in NC on the map? (ASHEVILLE) Southernmost? (WILMINGTON) Easternmost? (KITTY HAWK)
Bio Warm-Up: 9/2/10 • FACT: The major stages of plant reprod- uction include pollination, fertilization, dormancy, dispersal, & germination. • ?: What SI UNITS would be used to measure each of the following: • 1) the mass of an apple • 2) the length of your desk • 3) the temperature of this classroom • 4) the volume of a bottle of lotion
E/E Warm-Up: 9/2/10 • FACT: Molten rock beneath Earth’s surface is called magma. Above Earth’s surface, it is called lava. • ?: 1) What would be the latitude-longitude coordinates of an island that was located EXACTLY where the equator and the prime meridian crossed each other? • 2) What does the word “hemisphere” mean?
E/E Notebook Check #1: 9/2/10 • 8/26, 8/27, 8/30, 8/31 #1, 8/31 #2, 9/1 #1, • 9/1 #2, 9/2 • (8 total entries)
Bio Warm-Up: 9/7/10 • FACT: mRNA molecules that are built in the cell’s nucleuscarry the DNA message from the nucleus to the ribosomes. • ?: Define competition. (TWO ORGANISMS GOING AGAINST EACH OTHER FOR RESOURCES) What are 3 major reasons that animals compete? (FOOD/WATER, TERRITORY, MATES)
E/E Warm-Up #1: 9/7/10 • FACT: Atlantic Ocean hurricanes usually form near west Africa as a result of heavy water evaporation, which forms huge clouds. • ?: List 3 major interstates on which you can travel in North Carolina. (I-40, I-85, I-95, I-77)
E/E Warm-Up #2: 9/7/10 • FACT: A biotic factor is a living thing, such as an oak tree. An abiotic factor is non-living, such as air or water. • ?: Would a topographic map of Winston-Salem have a GREATER NUMBER or a LESSER NUMBER of contour lines than a topographic map of Boone? WHY? (BOONE IS MORE MOUNTAINOUS THAN W-S)
Bio Warm-Up: 9/8/10 • FACT: The mitochondria are referred to as a “cell’s powerhouse.” • ?: According to the climatogram (precipitation are bars and temperature is the line), is there a “rainy season” and a “dry season” in this biome? Is there a “warm season” and a “cold season”?
E/E Warm-Up #1: 9/8/10 • FACT: The San Andreas Fault is a crack in the Earth’s crust in California. Movement of the crust along this fault causes earthquakes. • ?: How do you represent a depression, hole, or lake on a topographic map?
E/E Warm-Up #2: 9/8/10 • FACT: Caves usually form within limestone rock because limestone is very soft and can be “eaten away” quickly by water. ?: What are the elevations of A, B, C, & D?
E/E Warm-Up #1: 9/9/10 • FACT: The Earth’s solar system is located in the Milky Way Galaxy. • ?: What are the 6 major steps of the scientific method? (review) (QUESTION, HYPOTHESIS, EXPERIMENT, OBSERVATIONS, RESULTS, CONCLUSION)
E/E Warm-Up #2: 9/9/10 • FACT: All regular atoms have an overall neutral charge…the number of electrons (-) is equal to the number of protons (+). • ?: Name 3 common elements (atoms) that make up items on Earth. (HYDROGEN, BORON, SODIUM, ALUMINUM)
Bio Warm-Up: 9/13/10 • FACT: If pesticide were to be sprayed on plants, it would eventually negatively affect large animals more than small animals due to biological magnification since they’re eating more of the pesticide over time. • ?: Why can there NOT be a sustainable ecosystem containing 250 individual organisms of each trophic level in the food web (250 corn plants, 250 squirrels, and 250 hawks)? If there are 250 corn plants, about how many squirrels can be sustained? (25) How many hawks? (2-3)
E/E Warm-Up: 9/13/10 • FACT: Wood is a renewable resource. If used responsibly, trees can be grown and harvested without ever running out of supply. • ?:
Bio Warm-Up: 9/14/10 • FACT: Humans have 46 chromosomes per cell, arranged in 23 pairs. Pairs #1-22 are called autosomes, while pair #23 are the sex chromosomes. • ?: List the 3 major symbiotic relationships that occur in nature. • Give an example of each.
E/E Warm-Up #1: 9/14/10 • FACT: At one time in Earth’s history, all 7 continents were joined into a giant supercontinent, called Pangaea. • ?: Book—p. 74 #1, 2, 6 • Copy down each question and write the answer!
E/E Warm-Up #2: 9/14/10 • FACT: Erosion is the movement of materials from one place to another by means of wind, water, ice, and gravity. • ?: Provide one example of a… • Mixture, Element, Solution, Compound
Bio Warm-Up: 9/15/10 • FACT: DNA copies itself in the cell’s nucleus during a process called replication. • ?: What is a niche? What is the niche of a tree frog in a typical North Carolina forest ecosystem?
E/E Warm-Up #1: 9/15/10 • FACT: Earth is approximately 4.6 billion years old. We know this because scientists have dated the oldest rocks on Earth to be this old. • ?: What types of foods do you eat that are acidic? (SODA, ORANGES, LEMONS, TOMATOES, VINEGAR, MILK) What type of health complication is caused by too much acid in the digestive system? (HEARTBURN / ACID REFLUX)
E/E Warm-Up #2: 9/15/10 • FACT: Hurricane strength is measured on the Saffir-Simpson scale. Category 5 hurricanes have the strongest winds. • ?: What are the 4 states of matter? Which state of matter rarely exists on Earth?
Bio Warm-Up: 9/16/10 • FACT: Mitosis is the division of a cell nucleus. Cytokinesis is the division of the cell itself. • ?: What is photosynthesis? What is cellular respiration? How are they related to one another? Briefly define each.
E/E Warm-Up: 9/16/10 • FACT: Groundwater resides in underground areas known as zones of saturation. • ?: List 5 specific kinds or names of rocks.
Bio Warm-Up: 9/20/10 • FACT: DNA is a double-stranded, twisted molecule called a double helix. (It looks like a spiral staircase.) • ?: Name at least 2 species of organisms on earth that can experience exponential population growth (never-ending, fast growth). (NOTHING)
E/E Warm-Up #1: 9/20/10 • FACT: Igneous rocks are formed in and around volcanoes from cooled magma and lava. • ?: Which mineral is harder: chalk or gold? (GOLD) HOW CAN YOU TELL? (RUB THEM TOGETHER…SEE WHICH ONE SCRATCHES THE OTHER)
E/E Warm-Up #2: 9/20/10 • FACT: The bottom of the ocean is usually very deep and very flat. It is called the abyssal plain. • ?: What is the difference between the COLOR and the STREAK of a mineral? (COLOR = COLOR OF SURFACE OF MINERAL…STREAK = COLOR OF MINERAL WHEN SCRATCHED ONTO HARD SURFACE)
Bio Warm-Up: 9/21/10 • FACT: In DNA, the nitrogen base Adenine always pairs with Thymine, while Cytosine always pairs with Guanine (A-T & C-G). • ?: In the U.S., the death rate is currently higher than the birth rate. Why, then, is the U.S. population still increasing? (THE IMMIGRATION RATE IS HIGHER THAN THE EMIGRATION RATE)
E/E Warm-Up #1: 9/21/10 • FACT: Salinity is the measure of the amount of salt dissolved in water. • ?: Why can’t dinosaur fossils be found in igneous rock? THINK ABOUT IT!!! (IGNEOUS ROCKS ARE FORMED FROM MAGMA, WHICH WOULD DESTROY ANY FOSSILS) • ?: Are there any active volcanoes in the U.S. today? If so, where are they? (YES, MT. ST. HELENS IN WASHINGTON, YELLOWSTONE CALDERA, HAWAII, ALASKA)
E/E Warm-Up #2: 9/21/10 • FACT: A drought is an extended period of below-average precipitation. Winston-Salem is in danger of falling into a drought in the coming weeks. • ?: Sediment (like sand) is fused into a sedimentary rock (like sandstone) during a process called LITHIFICATION.
Bio Warm-Up: 9/22/10(Period 1 Only) • FACT: The three major shapes of bacteria cells are cocci (sphere), bacilli (rod), & spirilli (spiral) • ?: Draw and label a brief diagram of the carbon cycle. Include the following: • Pine tree & wolf • CO2 (carbon dioxide) • C6H12O6 (glucose sugar)
E/E Warm-Up #1: 9/22/10 • FACT: A floodplain is a flat area that extends from a riverbank. This area usually floods during times of high precipitation. • ?: How could an igneous rock (such as granite) turn into a sedimentary rock?
E/E Warm-Up #2: 9/22/10 • FACT: Stalactites are mineral deposits that hang from the ceiling of a cave. Stalagmites are mineral deposits that rise from a cave floor. • ?: Scientists have found fossils of tropical plants buried in the ice in Antarctica (the South Pole). Explain how these fossils may have appeared here!!!
Bio Warm-Up: 9/27/10(Periods 2, 5, & 6 Only) • FACT: The three major shapes of bacteria cells are cocci (sphere), bacilli (rod), & spirilli (spiral) • ?: Draw and label a brief diagram of the carbon cycle. Include the following: • Pine tree & wolf • CO2 (carbon dioxide) • C6H12O6 (glucose sugar)
E/E Warm-Up: 9/27/10 • FACT: Barrier islands are long ridges of sand or sediment that are separated from the mainland. The Outer Banks of N.C. are barrier islands. • ?: If sandstone is squeezed and heated, a(n) ______________ rock will likely form. If the sandstone is heated so much that it melts, a(n) _______________ rock will likely form.
Bio Warm-Up: 9/28/10 • FACT: The major function of plant leaves is to trap sunlight for photosynthesis. • ?: What is biodiversity? (MANY DIFFERENT ORGANISMS IN AN ECOSYSTEM)
E/E Warm-Up #1: 9/28/10 • FACT: All of the land area whose water drains into a single stream is called the stream’s watershed. • ?: Mount Everest is constantly getting TALLER. The distance between Africa and North America is constantly GETTING WIDER. This is all due to CONTINENTAL DRIFT.
E/E Warm-Up #2: 9/28/10 • FACT: The Mesozoic Era is referred to as the “age of the dinosaurs.” • ?: How can a volcano in Japan affect people living in Winston-Salem? Be complete! (ASH FROM THE VOLCANO CAN BLOCK OUT THE SUN, CAUSING WEATHER CHANGES)
Bio Warm-Up: 9/29/10 • FACT: Taxonomy is the study of grouping and naming organisms based on their shared characteristics. • ?: A dam breaks upstream of Salem Lake and the ferns that grow on the banks of the lake are wiped out. What type of limiting factor comes into play in this scenario? (DENSITY-INDEPENDENT…FLOODING/HUMAN ACTIVITY)
E/E Warm-Up #1: 9/29/10 • FACT: Soil is the loose covering of weathered rock and organic matter on Earth’s surface. • ?: What causes continental drift? (SEAFLOOR SPREADING)
E/E Warm-Up #2: 9/29/10 • FACT: Desertification is the process where useful farmland turns into desert, usually due to a drought. • ?: To CONVERGE means “to come together.” To DIVERGE means “to move apart.”
Bio Warm-Up: 9/30/10 • FACT: A vacuole is a “storage tank” in a cell, usually for food or water. Plant cells usually have larger vacuoles than animal cells. • ?: List one invasive species that affects an ecosystem in the U.S. Briefly describe how this species was introduced and how this species impacts the ecosystem.