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History of Sport Management. Chapter 1. Sport Management Defined. From an applied perspective, sport management has: Existed since the time of ancient Greeks Gladiators Animal combat Olympics. From an applied perspective, sport management has:. Included the following event components

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    1. History of Sport Management Chapter 1

    2. Sport Management Defined • From an applied perspective, sport management has: • Existed since the time of ancient Greeks • Gladiators • Animal combat • Olympics

    3. From an applied perspective, sport management has: • Included the following event components • Magnificent opening ceremonies • Athletic competition • Thousands of spectators • Multiple occupations • purveyors of food and drink • promoters • purchasing agents • marketing personnel • management directors

    4. From an applied perspective, sport management has: • Emerged as an academic discipline and a professional occupation • Full-time employment • People employed in this field are know as practitioners

    5. While used interchangeably, sport(s) management is more accurate than sport(s) administration for it most accurately describes this field from a universal, or global, perspective Sport Management Defined

    6. Management sport related areas • facilities • hotels and resorts • public and private fitness and racquet clubs • merchandizing • collegiate and professional sports

    7. Management skills • planning • organizing • directing • controlling • budgeting • leading and evaluating

    8. Sports management organization examples • North American Society for Sport Management (NASSM) • Journal of Sport Management (JSM)

    9. Sportvs.Sports • Sport is singular in nature, whereas sports is a more all-encompassing term • In the sport business industry the term “sport” must encompass • sporting goods • sports tourism

    10. Sport management is the study and practice involved in relation to all people, activities, organizations, and business involved in producing, facilitating, promoting, or organizing any product that is sport, fitness, and recreation related; and, sport products that can be goods, services, people, places, or ideas (Parks, Zanger, and Quarterman, 1998; Pitts, Fielding, and Miller, 1994: Pitts and Stotlar, 2002). Definition of Sport Management for this text book:

    11. The NASPE-NASSM, Joint Task Force on Sport Management Curriculum and Accreditation (1993) defined sport management as: “the field of study offering the specialized training and education necessary for individuals seeking careers in any of the many segments of the industry.”

    12. The Evolution of Sport Management

    13. Improved movement skills Improved physical fitness Reduction of stress Healthier mental states Improved cooperation skills Feelings of success Benefits of Being Physical Active(for Children)

    14. First sport management programs • Florida Southern University – 1949-1959 • Approved by the State Department of Education • Program was titled “Baseball Business Administration” • Curriculum had nine content areas including • “Tickets and Tax Laws” • “Legal Responsibility and Insurance” • “Promotion and Public Relations” • “Park Maintenance” • “Finances, Accounting, and Payroll Systems” • Ohio University - 1966

    15. Sports trading cards Sports art Sports merchandising Sports reporter Sports TV Sports books Sports promoter Sporting goods Sports accountant Sports themed restaurants Sports agent Sports journalism Sports photographer Sports radio Sports concessions Sports statistics organization Sports lawyers Sport administration jobs and careers

    16. Early evolution

    17. EARLY EVOLUTION • Sports Administration Program at Ohio University • Master’s level program started at University of Miami in Coral Gables, Florida • In 1957, James G. Madison, a physical education professor, prepared the curriculum at the encouragement of Walter O’Malley, then president of the Brooklyn Dodgers • While the curriculum was never implemented, it formed the basis for the program at Ohio University

    18. EARLY EVOLUTION • A few years later – first baccalaureate degrees granted • Biscayne College(now St. Thomas University) • St. John’s University

    19. EARLY EVOLUTION • 1971 – University of Massachusetts - second master’s program established • 1980 – 20 colleges and universities in the United States offer graduate programs in sports management

    20. EARLY EVOLUTION • By 1985 – grown to 83 programs in the United States • 40 undergraduate • 32 graduate • 11 at both levels • Published by National Association of Sport and Physical Education (NASPE)

    21. EARLY EVOLUTION • 1988 – 109 colleges and universities with programs in sport management • 51 undergraduate degrees • 33 master’s level • 25 both levels • Published in the May 23, 1988 issue of Sports, Inc.

    22. EARLY EVOLUTION • 1993 – 201 programs including six doctoral programs identified by NASPE • Over 200 programs existed in the United States by the end of the millennium • a growth of over 5000% over a 30 year span

    23. Current sport management review registry • Approved programs = 63 • 33 Undergraduate • 26 Master’s • 4 Doctorate • Institutions currently in folio review = 8 • 6 Undergraduate • 2 Master’s • 0 Doctorate

    24. 1980 10 Undergraduate 9 Master’s 2 Doctoral 1988 6 Undergraduate 9 Master’s 2 Doctoral Canadian Programs

    25. Differences in American and Canadian Programs • American programs are more applied in nature focusing on • Collegiate & professional sports • Facility management • Health and fitness club management • Canadian programs are more theoretical in nature focusing on • Historical and cultural perspectives • Physical activity • Sociological dimensions • Physiological and biochemical aspects

    26. International sport management • Slower to develop than North America • International community looks to North America for developments as a paradigm • Faculty in many countries look to North America for • models of curriculum • course content • textbooks • journals • cirriculum standards

    27. Japan China Greece Italy South Africa France United Kingdom Sweden Spain Korea Taiwan Hong Kong Singapore Germany Malaysia Ireland Norway Finland India Netherlands Scotland Nations developing sports management programs

    28. International sports management associations • Asian Association for Sports Management • European Association for Sports Management • Sport Management Association of Australia and New Zealand • Korean Association of Sports Management • Similar associations in • Taiwan • Japan • Italy • South Africa • France

    29. Japanese developments • Decreasing demand for physical education teachers • Increasing need for personnel in the commercial sport sector • 100 million people using driving ranges in Japan • Requires personnel with exceptional management skills • Management of spectator sports also increasing in importance

    30. Four professional Associations in North America • North American Society for Sport Management (NASSM) • Established in 1985 to promote, stimulate, and encourage study, research, scholarly writing, and professional development in sport management • It is the successor of the Sports Management Arts and Science Society (SMARTS) which was conceived by the faculty at the University of Massachusetts • Focus on theory, applications, and practice of management specifically related to sport, exercise (fitness), dance, and play. • Holds an annual conference • Sponsors the Journal of Sport Management (JSM) – published since January 1987 which has become the major resource for disseminating significant knowledge in the field

    31. Four professional Associations in North America • National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) • Sport Marketing Association (SMA) • Newest academic association in the United States • Focuses on content area within sport management – sport marketing • Initiated in November 2002 by sport marketing professors and scholars • Held its first conference in Gainesville, Florida in November 2003

    32. Four professional Associations in North America • Sport and Recreation Law Association (SRLA) • Started in 1987 • Known as the Society for the Study of Legal Aspects of Sport and Physical Activity until 2003 • Focuses on the legal aspect of sport • Hosts an annual scholarly conference • Publishes the Journal of Legal Aspects of Sport

    33. 1986 NASPE Task Force • NASPE – and association of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance (AAHPERD) • Task force made up of five professors and four practitioners • Purpose – identify ways to avoid duplication of services offered by NASSM

    34. 1986 NASPE Task Force • Three agenda items identified • Curricula guidelines • Student guidelines for selecting programs • A directory of college programs preparing professionals in sports management

    35. 1986 NASPE Task Force • Drafted and disseminated curricular guidelines to directors of sports management programs • Final document approved by the NASPE Cabinet in 1987 as NASPE’s official curricular guidelines • Published as Guidelines for Programs Preparing Undergraduate and Graduate Students Careers in Sport Management(Brassie, 1989a)

    36. NASPE – NASSM Joint Task Force • Formed to develop less limited curricular standards that could be endorsed jointly by NASPE and NASSM • Included five members from each association • Tasks • Develop standards to shape the preparation of future sports management programs • Investigate the feasibility of accrediting sport management curricula – incentive for institutions to upgrade their respective programs

    37. NASPE – NASSM Joint Task Force • Members agreed that program review and approval was important to ensure quality graduates • Task force convened in 1989 • Curriculum standards approved by the NASSM board of directors in 1990 • 1991 - referendum was sent to and approved by 181 institutions with sports management programs

    38. NASPE – NASSM Joint Task Force • NASPE Cabinet approved the standards in 1992 • Joint task force also developed a protocol for evaluating programs • adopted a “voluntary program review” procedure rather than an “accreditation process” • May 1993 – first NASPE-NASSM Sport Management Curriculum Standards and Program Review Process was published • The Sport Management Program Review Council (SMPRC) was created to govern the process (1994)

    39. Sport Management Today and in the Future • Most programs today average two full-time faculty while a few have five or more

    40. Sport Management Today and in the Future • Curricula areas • Management in sport • Ethics in sport • Marketing in sport • Legal aspects of sport • Social and behavioral dimensions in sport • Finance in sport

    41. Sport Management Today and in the Future • Specialized areas are growing as faculty increase and develop specialized areas of research • Some day there may be colleges of sport management

    42. Sport Management Today and in the Future • Trends in the United States • One out of ten people in the U.S. is working in the leisure industry • One-third of the nations land is devoted to leisure • Americans spend one-third of their time and income on leisure pursuits

    43. Historically, sport management has had a strong physical education orientation Curriculum

    44. Curriculum • Today the focus is on foundation areas of study with emphasis on • Sport management courses • Application areas that build on foundation subject matter • Areas specific to the sport industry • Field experiences

    45. Curriculum • It is a multidisciplinary field of study requiring the cooperation of several disciplines • Business administration (management) • Physical education • “sport studies” • “exercise and sport sciences”

    46. Future of Sport Management as an Academic Program • The sports management profession will become legitimate when graduates of sports management programs are able to • demonstrate the knowledge necessary to be successful in the marketplace • able to perform the functions expected of a manager • qualify for advancement through the ranks of an organization

    47. Future of Sport Management as an Academic Program • Quality of faculties will influence the potential of sport management • Sport management must continue its development as an area of scholarship • Faculty must insist on maintaining and improving curriculum standards

    48. Future Growth • Professionally – administrator have evolved from volunteers and part-time administrators to full-time university-trained professionals • Disciplinary – embraced as a distinct, legitimate academic subject and unique field of inquiry

    49. Future Growth • Research • Excellent journals now exist • Quality of published research has increased • More doctoral students have joined the profession • Development of new sports scholars needs to be a focus in the new millennium

    50. Positive and Negative • Negative results from an expanding field • Supply of graduates has exceeded demand • Depressed salaries • Increased competition for available jobs • Positive results • Only the most qualified students are hired • Colleges and universities have upgraded curricula and student experience to enhance their competitiveness in the job market • Quality of graduates has been increased