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Soviet Union – Leader = Josef Stalin PowerPoint Presentation
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Soviet Union – Leader = Josef Stalin

Soviet Union – Leader = Josef Stalin

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Soviet Union – Leader = Josef Stalin

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Presentation Transcript

  1. Rise of Dictatorships“Power tends to corrupt and absolute power corrupts absolutely. Great men are almost always bad men.” (Lord Acton)

  2. As North America struggled with the Great Depression, other countries, especially in Europe, struggled with political upheaval: • Most European economies had not recovered from WWI • High unemployment, food shortages, crime… • Some saw Communism as the answer their political and economic problems • Others wanted a strong military or Fascist government to restore law and order • Result? Rise of leaders who became totalitarian Dictators who suppressed all opposition

  3. Soviet Union – Leader = Josef Stalin • Stalin was appointed General Secretary of the Communist party's Central Committee in 1922. He consolidated power following the death of Vladimir Lenin in 1924 by suppressing Lenin's criticisms and by expanding his role, all the while eliminating any opposition. • By the late 1920s, he was the unchallenged leader of the Soviet Union. He remained general secretary until the post was abolished in 1952, concurrently serving as the Premier of the Soviet Union from 1941 onward. • Under Stalin, the Soviet Union became a “totalitarian state”

  4. His economic and agricultural policies led to the death of millions of Russians • He replaced the Lenin’s “New Economic Policy of the 1920’s with a highly centralized “command economy”, launching a period of industrialization and collectivization that resulted in the rapid transformation of the USSR from an agrarian society into an industrial power. • However, the economic changes coincided with the imprisonment of millions of people in “correctional labour& prison camps” and the deportation of many others to remote areas • in a period that lasted from 1936–39, Stalin instituted a campaign against alleged enemies within his regime called “The Great Purge”, in which 100,000s were executed. Major figures in the Communist Party, such as the old Bolsheviks, Leon Trotsky, and Red Army leaders, were killed after being convicted of plotting to overthrow the government and Stalin

  5. Italy – Leader = Benito Mussolini (“Il Duce”) • He ruled constitutionally until 1925, when he dropped all pretense of democracy and set up a legal dictatorship • Mussolini and his fascist followers consolidated their power through a series of laws that transformed the nation into a one party dictatorship. • Within five years he had established dictatorial authority by both legal and extraordinary means, aspiring to create a totalitarian Fascist state that opposed all democracy • Mussolini’s government was also very nationalistic and relied on the military and secret police to maintain absolute control, including control of media and the use of propaganda to spread their ideals

  6. Spain - Leader = General Francisco Franco • In 1936, Franco and a group of Spanish military leaders conspired to overthrowthe Republican government. • The rebellion was only half successful and evolved into a civil war, during which Franco emerged as the leader of the Nationalists. He was able to secure military support from the fascist governments of both Germany and Italy and brought all the rebel groups together. • After winning the civil war, Franco had the Spanish Parliament dissolved. He then established a dictatorship and was de factoregent of the nominally restored Kingdom of Spain. His official posts were that of Head of State and Head of Government as both the “Caudillo” (The Leader) and Prime Minister. • Franco went on to rule Spain for nearly forty years • Anti-Fascists (including 1200 Cdns. who formed the “Mackenzie-PapineauBatallion”) fought against Franco

  7. Germany - Leader = Adolf Hitler (“der Fuhrer”) • He and his Nazi Party were elected in 1933 and he became Chancellor of Germany – he abolished all other political parties and unions • They claimed they had the solutions to bring Germany out of the Great Depression and restore its glory - resented the “war guilt clause” and paying reparations for damages • Hitler ruled as a ruthless dictator with intimidation, propaganda, fear and racism