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Compare the policies of Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter toward the Soviet Union. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Objectives. Compare the policies of Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter toward the Soviet Union. Discuss changing U.S. foreign policy in the developing world. Identify the successes and failures of Carter’s foreign policy in the Middle East. Terms and People.

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  • Compare the policies of Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter toward the Soviet Union.
  • Discuss changing U.S. foreign policy in the developing world.
  • Identify the successes and failures of Carter’s foreign policy in the Middle East.

Terms and People

  • Helsinki Accords−a document that put the nations of Europe on record in favor of human rights, endorsed by the U.S. and Soviet Union in a 1975 meeting
  • human rights− the basic rights that every human being is entitled to have
  • SALT II− an agreement between the United States and Soviet Union to limit nuclear arms production
  • boat people − people who fled communist-controlled Vietnam on boats, looking for refuge in Southeast Asia, the United States, and Canada

Terms and People(continued)

  • sanctions− penalties
  • developing world − the poor nations of Asia, Africa, and Latin America
  • Camp David Accords − agreements that provided the framework for a peace treaty between Egypt and Israel
  • Ayatollah Khomeini − a fundamentalist Islamic cleric who took power in Iran when the Shah fled in 1979

What were the goals of American foreign policy during the Ford and Carter years, and how successful were Ford’s and Carter’s policies?

The Vietnam War caused many Americans to question the direction of the nation’s foreign policy.

Debates about détente, human rights, and which regimes deserved American support became part of the national conversation.


Gerald Ford continued Nixon’s policies of détente with the Soviet Union after he took office in 1974.

The United States continued disarmament talkswith the Soviets that led to SALT II.

Ford also endorsed the Helsinki Accords, a document that put major nations on record in support of human rights.


The U.S. sought to put the Vietnam War in the past.

South Vietnam fell to the communists. Many of the boat people eventually found refuge in the United States and Canada.


Early in his presidency, Jimmy Carter continued Nixon’s and Ford’s policies toward the Soviet Union.

In June 1979, Carter signed the SALT II arms control treaty despite opposition from many Americans who believed it jeopardized U.S. security. The U.S. Senate held heated debates about whether to vote for the treaty, which angered the Soviet Union.

Despite the signed treaty, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan to support its communist government. Carter withdrew SALT II from Congress and imposed sanctions on the Soviets.


Jimmy Carter changed the course of American foreign policy by declaring it would be guided by a concern for human rights.

Carter’s beliefs about human rights changed the way that the U.S. dealt with countries in thedeveloping world. The U.S. stopped sending money to countries that ignored their citizens’ rights, such as Nicaragua.

Carter also decided toreturn the Panama Canal Zone to Panama by 1999. Although some Americans feared that this would weaken national security, the Canal Zone treaties were ratified in 1978 and Panama now has full control of the canal.


Carter helped to negotiate a peace agreement between Egypt and Israel known as the Camp David Accords.

Egypt became the first Arab nation to officially recognize the nation of Israel.


In Iran, fundamentalist Islamic clerics led by Ayatollah Khomeini seized power.

Radical students took over the U.S. Embassy and held 66 Americans hostage.

President Carter failed to win all of the hostages’ release– evidence to some that his foreign policy was not tough enough.


The hostage crisis showed that the Soviet Union was no longer the only threat to America.

Conflicts in the Middle East threatened to become the greatest foreign policy challenge for the United States.


Terms and People

  • liberal– a person who generally supports government intervention to help the needy and protect the rights of women and minorities
  • conservative – a person who generally supports limited government involvement in the economy and community help for the needy, and upholds traditional values
  • New Right – a resurgent political movement that was a coalition of several conservative groups

Terms and People(continued)

  • unfunded mandate – programs required but not paid for by the federal government
  • Moral Majority − a political organization founded by Jerry Falwell in 1979 to advance religious goals
  • Ronald Reagan − the Republican candidate for president in 1980, who won the election with the help of the growing conservative movement

What spurred the rise of conservatism in the late 1970s and early 1980s?

After losing the 1964 election in a landslide, conservatives built an organization that vigorously promoted their goals and values.

In 1980, Ronald Reagan was elected president; the modern conservative movement he spearheaded deeply affected the nation’s policies for decades.


The major U.S. political parties in the late 20th century were the Democrats and Republicans.

Republicans were usually conservatives.

Democrats were often labeled liberals.


Liberals believed government should:

  • support social programs for the disadvantaged.
  • protect the rights of minorities.
  • regulate industry.
  • rely on diplomacy to solve international problems.

Conservatives believed government should:

  • limit wasteful spending on social programs.
  • reduce taxes.
  • deregulate industry.
  • rely on a strong national defense and actively fight communism in other countries.

Some conservatives thought that the new freedoms exemplified by the counterculture posed a danger to traditional society.

  • Liberal programs, such as welfare and busing, were seen by some as threatening the American dream.
  • Conservatives thought that taxes on citizens were too high.

Liberals and conservatives differed over social and political issues.


In the 1960s and 1970s, differences between the Republican and Democratic parties grew. Liberal Democratic policies were strongly criticized.

A resurgent conservative movement called the New Rightemerged, made up largely of Republicans.

The Democratic Party unraveled in part because of

Public faith in the federal government was weakened by

  • the Vietnam War
  • urban riots.
  • the Iran hostage crisis.
  • the oil crisis of the 1970s.

Conservatives argued that the government taxed too heavily and complained about unfunded mandates.

They also thought that President’s Johnson’s promise of a Great Society increased poverty and even contributed to the decline of traditional family values.


Religious groups began to actively support the conservative movement.

The Moral Majority, a political organization formed by Rev. Jerry Falwell, worked to fulfill religious goals. It backed the Republican Party.

Republicans also benefited from population trends. The Democratic stronghold in northern cities weakened.

After civil rights legislation was championed by Democrats in the 1960s, many white southerners became Republicans.

the 1980 the republican presidential nominee ronald reagan asked
The 1980, the Republican presidential nominee, Ronald Reagan asked:

Are you better of today than you were four years ago?

Most people said, “No.”



The race for the presidency in 1980 was close.

Reagan tipped the balance in his favor during the one and only televised debate against Democratic incumbent Jimmy Carter.


In 1980, the conservatives were back.

Ronald Reagan won the presidency with 50.6 percent of the popular vote.

The Republicans achieved the majority in the Senate for the first time in 25 years.


Terms and People

  • supply-side economics –an economic theory which holds that the government should increase the supply of labor and goods, rather than government spending, to achieve economic goals
  • deregulation – the reduction or removal of government control over industry
  • budget deficit – the shortfall between the amount of money spent and the amount of money taken in by the government
  • national debt − the amount of money the federal government owes to owners of government bonds

Terms and People(continued)

  • Savings and Loan crisis – the failure of 1,000 savings and loan banks in 1989 due to risky business practices
  • voucher − a government check that could be used by parents to pay tuition at private schools
  • AIDS − Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, a disease with no known cure that attacks the immune system; began spreading in the early 1980s

What were the major characteristics of the conservative Reagan Revolution?

Conservatives celebrated the election of Ronald Reagan to the presidency, referring to it as the “Reagan Revolution.”

The Reagan Revolution brought a significant shift in the political direction of the nation.


Reagan based his economic policy on the theory of supply-side economics. He believed that lower taxes would increase spending.

  • His Economic Recovery Act of 1981 cut taxes by 25 percent.
  • He convinced Congress to cut $40 billion from the federal budget, largely from social programs.
  • He brought deregulation to many industries, including banking.

Some people referred to the his economic policies as Reaganomics.


In spite of Reagan’s policies, the economy experienced a severe recession lasting from 1980 to 1982.

More than 10 percent of workers were unemployed.

Blue collar workers were especially hard hit.

The number of poor people grew, while the richest percentage of Americans became richer.


The recession ended in 1983. The economy began to rebound, but other economic problems persisted.

Reagan increased defense spending, but did not persuade Congress to make huge budget cuts in other areas.

In 1985, Congress passed the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act, requiring automatic cuts in federal spending.

Nevertheless, the federal budget deficit grew from $79 billion in 1981 to $221 billion in 1986.

The national debt rose to $2.5 trillion.


In 1989, the Savings and Loan crisis occurred.

About 1,000 banks failed due to fraudulent behavior and risky loans.

The federal government spent more than $200 billion to bail them out.

$200 billion

Many blamed Reagan’s deregulation policies for allowing banks to make such risky investments.


Despite the deficit, the growing economy made Reagan a very popular president who strengthened the conservative cause.

He appointed conservative justices to the Supreme Court, including Sandra Day O’Connor, the first female justice.

He promoted legislation allowing religious groups access to public school facilities.

Reagan easily won reelection in 1984, but the Democrats retained control of the House of Representatives.


Reagan’s Vice President George H.W. Bushwon the presidency in 1988 by calling for a “kinder, gentler nation” and promising not to raise taxes.


Challenging issues from the 1980s would continue to confront Bush.

  • the rising costs of Social Security
  • the budget deficit
  • the failure of public education

Bush called for community volunteers to provide services for the needy. He supported the use of vouchers in public schools.


A new disease appeared in 1981 called Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

President Reagan responded slowly to the AIDS crisis. Funding for research on the disease rose during George H.W. Bush’s term.

Nevertheless, by 1994, AIDS had killed more than 250,000 Americans.


Terms and People

  • Strategic Defense Initiative– President Reagan’s plan to develop innovative defenses to guard the U.S. against nuclear missile attacks
  • Contras– anticommunist counterrevolutionaries in Nicaragua who were backed by the Reagan administration
  • Mikhail Gorbachev – the President of the Soviet Union beginning in 1985 who ushered in a new era of social and economic reforms

Terms and People(continued)

  • glasnost– Russian term meaning “a new openness,” a policy in the Soviet Union in the 1980s calling for open discussion of national problems
  • perestroika− a policy in the Soviet Union in the 1980s calling for restructuring of the stagnant Soviet economy
  • Iran-Contra affair −a political scandal under President Reagan involving the use of money from secret arm sales to Iran to illegally support the Contras in Nicaragua

What were Reagan’s foreign policies, and how did they contribute to the fall of communism in Europe?

President Reagan believed that the United States should seek to roll back Soviet rule in Eastern Europe and that peace would come through strength.

His foreign policies initially created tensions between the superpowers, but ultimately contributed to the end of the Cold War.


President Reagan believed that communism could be weakened by building up the U.S. military.

The military build-up included the Strategic Defense Initiative.

This led to a dramatic increase in defense spending.


The Reagan administration supported many anticommunist groups around the world.

  • Afghanistan
  • El Salvador
  • Grenada
  • Contras inNicaragua

Reagan called the Soviet Union an “evil empire” during his first term in office.


Mikhail Gorbachev became the President of the Soviet Union in 1985.

His twin policies of glasnost and perestroika moved the Soviet Union away from socialism and marked the beginning of a new era in U.S.–Soviet relations.

In 1989, several Eastern European nations ousted their communist regimes.

The fall of the Berlin Wall in Germany symbolized the end of communism in Europe.


The Soviet Union broke apart in 1991.

Newly elected President George H.W. Bush signed agreements with Gorbachev, and his successor President Boris Yeltsin.

They pledged friendship and cooperation and reduction in the buildup of nuclear weapons.

The Cold War, which had lasted more than45 years, was finally over.

but the u s continued to confront trouble in the middle east
But the U.S. continued to confront trouble in the Middle East.

The U.S. clashed with Libya throughout the 1980s.

In 1983, 241 American marines were killed in Lebanon.


The Iran-Contra affair damaged Reagan’s reputation during his second term.

In 1985, the U.S. sold weapons to Iran.

In return, Iran pressured Lebanese terror groups to release some American hostages.

The U.S used the money from gun sales to secretly fund the Contras in Nicaragua.

But Congress banned sending funds to the Contras in 1983.

Several leading Reagan officials were convicted in this scandal, but Reagan remained popular when he left office.


Terms and People

  • personal computer– asmall computer developed for individual use
  • biotechnology – the use of technology to solve problems affecting living organisms
  • satellite – a mechanical device that orbits Earth in space, receiving and sending information-filled signals
  • Internet − a computer network that links people around the world, also called the World Wide Web

Terms and People(continued)

  • globalization – the process by which national economies, politics, cultures, and societies become integrated with those of other nations around the world
  • multinational corporation − companies that produce and sell their goods and services all over the world
  • service economy − an economic system based on the production of services rather than goods

How have technological changes and globalization transformed the American economy?

The rate of technological change sped up during the twentieth century and touched every aspect of life.

Globalizationchanged the American economy,bringing new opportunities and challenges.


The 20th century unfolded in a whirl of new technology.

Perhaps no innovation was as significant as the computer.

The first modern computer was invented in 1946.

The development of the silicon microchip made personal computers possible.


By the 1980s, computers were transforming American business and everyday life.

Apple Computers and Microsoft made computers and software affordable for millions of Americans.

Technological advances made other electronics, such as video games and cell phones, possible.


American society changed profoundly.People began to live longer, healthier lives, and the labor force dramatically shifted away from agriculture.


The late 20th century became known as the “information age.”

Computers, cell phones, and satellitesmadecommunication and information access fastand easy.

The Internet, a worldwide network of computers, transformed business, education, and entertainment.


New communications technologies enabled companies to do business around the world.

Multinational corporations began doing business in many different countries at one time.

Globalizationhas made products cheaper and available to more people, but this comes at a price: economic woes that affect one region are now often felt in other regions.


Computers changed the way business operates.

Many people in locations around the world might be involved in one purchase.


The production of goods in the U.S. is declining, but our production of services is quickly increasing.Economists call this a service economy.

Workers in many different fields are finding that they now need computer skills to get jobs.


The U.S. transition to a service economy created opportunities for entrepreneurs like Ray Kroc, who franchised McDonald’s in 1955, and Sam Walton, who created Wal-Mart.

However, as manufacturing and production declined in the United States, so did organized labor.

Union membership fell from a high of 35% in 1945 to less than 15% in 2000.


Terms and People

  • Manuel Noriega– Panama’s dictator who was arrested by U.S. troops in 1989 and convicted of drug trafficking
  • Tiananmen Square – the site in Beijing where, in 1989, Chinese students staged prodemocracy protests that were put down by the Chinese government
  • apartheid – a political system of strict racial segregation in South Africa
  • Nelson Mandela − the leader of South Africa’s antiapartheid movement

Terms and People(continued)

  • divest – to withdraw investments
  • Saddam Hussein − the dictator of Iraq, who invaded Kuwait in 1990 in an effort to gain control of 20% of the world’s oil production
  • Operation Desert Storm − 1991 American-led attack on Iraqi forces to expel them from Kuwait

What actions did the United States take abroad during George H.W. Bush’s presidency?

When the Cold War ended, Americans hoped a new era of global peace would dawn.

Instead, a dangerous era of regional conflicts challenged the Bush administration.


When President Bush took the helm of the world’s only remaining superpower, he was uniquely qualified in the area of foreign relations.

However, a number of difficult international challenges erupted to test his skills.


Bush sent 12,000 U.S. troops to invade Panama.Dictator Manuel Noriega was deposed and convicted of drug trafficking.

In China, a prodemocracy protest in Tiananmen Square was crushed by Chinese tanks.


In South Africa, democracy replaced segregation.

  • Protests against apartheid were growing.
  • Private firms in the U.S. began to divest their South Africa investments to protest its policies.
  • Nelson Mandela, imprisoned since 1962 for leading the antiapartheid movement, was released from prison in 1990.

Nelson Mandela was elected President of South Africa in 1994.


The Bush administration adopted the role of international peacekeeper, but chose its battles carefully.

When Yugoslavia erupted into civil war in 1991, Bush was reluctant to get involved.

But in 1992, he sent Marines to Somalia to establish a cease-fire between rival warlords and to deliver food to starving people.


Bush’s most significant foreign policy challenge occurred in the Persian Gulf.

In 1990, Iraq’s ruthless dictator, Saddam Hussein, invaded neighboring Kuwait, determined to take over its significant oil deposits.

The U.S. was determined to repel Hussein’s aggression, which threatened to destabilize the Middle East.


Diplomacy and sanctions failed to make Hussein withdraw. The Persian Gulf War began.

Operation Desert Storm, the American-led attack on Iraq, began on January 16, 1991.


The Persian Gulf War

The military operation consisted of five weeks of devastating aerial bombardments on Iraqi forces.

Coalition ground troops stormed into Kuwait on February 23. Within five days, Iraq agreed to a UN cease-fire and withdrew from Kuwait.

Coalition forces were not permitted to pursue Hussein back to Baghdad by UN decree. He lost the war, and 25,000 soldiers, but his regime survived.