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The 1990’s. By: Mark Griffith, Alexis Rodriguez, Mia Laserna, Hansa Naimpally , Nick Shenkler Block 2B. 1990. Chernobyl- meltdown of nuclear power plant close to capital of Ukraine, Kiev 350,000 people relocated Under Jurisdiction of Soviet Union

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the 1990 s

The 1990’s

By: Mark Griffith, Alexis Rodriguez, Mia Laserna,

Hansa Naimpally, Nick Shenkler

Block 2B

fall of soviet union 1
Chernobyl- meltdown of nuclear power plant close to capital of Ukraine, Kiev

350,000 people relocated

Under Jurisdiction of Soviet Union

Soviets attempted to cover accident- failure

Gorbachev realizes he can’t support Eastern Economies-b/c failing economy, pulls troops out and local leaders reform economies

Fall of Berlin Wall

Gorbachev- popular in East and West Germany

Protesters in East Berlin persuaded East German Gov’t to open gates- Nov. 9, 1989

Germany 1990 reunified

Fall of Soviet Union 1


soviet union 1989
Glasnost-rid of media censorship and permitted public government criticism

Perestroika - restructure gov’t bureaucracy

Soviet Leader Gorbachev puts glasnost and perestroika into place to fix failing Soviet system

Effect - no longer repressed by government authority, nationalism rise of subject nations

Soviet Union 1989


  • Gorbachev wants to decentralize gov’t, give more power to local officials over farm and factory
  • Fired 40% of regional officials
  • 1989 - free election, first time since 1917
  • 1989 - Soviet Union removes troops from Afghanistan
  • 1989 - Gorbachev goes to China to soften tensions between Soviet/China border
fall of subject countries
Poland - Lech Walesa-starts strike and revolution

1990 - hold elections Walesa become President, Communists fall

Hungary 1989 - opens borders with Australia, people go West

Romania 1989 violent revolution brings gov’t down

Soviet Dictator Nicolae Ceausescu executed, with his wife


Velvet Revolution 1989- peaceful revolution in Czechoslovakia, took power from Communists (Soviets)

Vaclave Havel becomes President

Fall of Subject Countries


fall of soviet union 2
Coup d’etat - Gorbachev seized

Boris Yeltsin - leader of Russian Republic - quits Communist Party, led revolt from Communist

Gorbachev returned to power but resigns as President

No one replaces him

Soviet Union-collapses

START 1 - strategic arms reduction treaty- George Bush and Gorbachev, 1991, reduce number of nuclear weapons

START 2 - 2 months later, Bush and Yeltsin- “no longer potential adversaries”, enemies

Fall of Soviet Union 2



Saddam Hussein

U.S. President just told me to get out; PfftI don’t think so! (Jan 15,1991)

Okay that was longer than I expected…anyway its over. (August 20, 1988)

Favorite Quote: “Sometimes you have to pick the gun up to put the Gun down.”

― Malcolm X

Education: al-Karh Secondary School

Work Information: President of Iraq

Religious Views: Islam

Relationship Status: Married to Wafa el-Mullah al-Howeish, Nidal al-Hamdani ,Samira Shahbandar, SajidaTalfah

Invasion planned later…should be easy (September 22, 1980)

Invasion planned later…should be easy (September 22, 1980)

Samira Shahbandar

Back in power baby! Just got appointed al Bakr’s deputy! (1968)


Saddam…where’d you go? (1959)



Watching Movies

Reading Books

That did not go as planned…(October 7, 1959)

The GodFather

I am excited to help the Ba’ath Party’s goal to unite the Arab states in the Middle East (1957)


Frank Sinatra

We believe we have made a fine addition to our group. (1957)

  • Kuwait increased oil production
  • Drop world prices- Iraq’s main recovery source
  • Iraq could not repay loans from Kuwaiti and Saudi regimes during Iran-Iraq war
  • Kuwait and Saudi Arabia Refused to forgive debts


iraq invades
Iraq Invades
  • Iraq led by Saddam Hussein invades Kuwait August 2, 1990
  • Large portion of Gulf oil supply put in anti-American control
  • Threatened flow of oil from Saudi Arabia (controlled fifth of world’s oil supplies)
  • Iraqi threats:

- 4th largest armed force in world

- Nuclear, Biological, Chemical

- Scud Missiles



un becomes involved
UN Becomes Involved
  • Authorize trade embargo on Iraq
  • Operation Desert Shield: Quarter of a million UN troops sent (mostly Americans) to defend Saudi Arabia
  • Used military force to intimidate Hussein to withdraw
  • Forces soon grows to 550,000 troops



operation desert storm
Operation Desert Storm
  • Commanded by General H. Norman Schwarzkopf
  • UN deadline for Iraq to evacuate Kuwait- Jan 15, 1991
  • Hussein refused- “Mother of all battles” ensued
  • 700,000 troops assembled
  • Phase I- Air Offensive-gained control of Iraqi air space and air superiority
  • Iraqi counter offensive- launching of SCUD missiles (failed)
  • Phase II- Ground Offensive
  • American, British, and French forces blitzkrieg deep into Iraq
  • Hussein’s forces defeated and surrounded, announced withdraw of troops from Kuwait Feb. 26


remaining concerns
Remaining Concerns
  • Gulf War Syndrome- illnesses including joint pain, fatigue, headaches, and memory loss suffered from by Gulf veterans
  • Decision to end the war without removing Saddam Hussein from power. ( thought he would be overthrown by dissident Iraqis or Iraq would fall apart along the lines of Lebanon.)
  • Prompts Iraq War of 2003


impact on u s foreign policy
Impact on U.S. Foreign Policy
  • Gulf War Syndrome
  • Pres. Bush promoted the Uruguay Round General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
  • North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
  • Consulted European allies to stop Serbian aggression in Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • *Ordered U.S. troops to Somalia as part of Operation Restored Hope
  • Signed START II Treaty (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty)


persian gulf war
Persian Gulf War
  • Apartheid- legal system that segregated South African blacks from South African whites.
    • Prevented them from getting good jobs and living or working in primarily white areas
    • Prevented interracial relationships/marriages
    • Required South African blacks to carry identification papers
  • System enacted bythe National Party in 1948


nelson mandela
Nelson Mandela
  • Married to: Graca (Machel) Mandela
  • Christian
  • Was president of the African National Congress and South Africa during the 1990s
  • Jailed for about 30 years because he was accused of treason
  • Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993 for his anti-Apartheid movements


  • U.S. Reaction-
    • Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act: restricted South African imports and direct flights to and from South Africa and United States
  • In 1990- F. W. de Klerk became president of South Africa and he released Nelson Mandela from prison
  • He traveled around the country to gain support and money for the anti-Apartheid movement
  • After Klerk and Mandela worked out negotiations, the dominantly white-government was disassembled and Apartheid was put to an end


break up of yugoslavia
Break-Up of Yugoslavia


break up of yugoslavia 1991
Break-Up of Yugoslavia- 1991
  • Yugoslavia- populated by many different ethnic groups
  • Many different presidents after Tito
  • By the early 1990s, Yugoslavia began to fall apart
  • June/July 1991
    • Croatia declares independence
    • Slovenia gains its independence after short war
  • September 1991-
    • United Nations Security council enforces arms embargo in Yugoslavia


break up of yugoslavia 1992 bosnia
Break-Up of Yugoslavia- 1992Bosnia
  • Bosnian Catholics and Muslim Slavs wanted to break away from Yugoslavia, Serbs did not
  • January 1992- President Franjo Tudjman of Croatia wanted to take over areas of Bosnia that were primarily Croatian
  • March 1992- Bosnia-Herzegovina breaks away from Yugoslavia


war in bosnia 1992 1993
War in Bosnia: 1992-1993
  • Serbian militia began a method of ethnic cleansing and sought to remove all non-Serbs
  • Muslim men, women, and children were murdered
  • Accounts of rape
  • Death and detention centers in Omarska, Trnopolje, and Manjaca


war in bosnia 1994 1995
War in Bosnia: 1994-1995
  • April 1994: NATO launched air strikes against the Serbs
  • 1995: Mass killings in Sarajevo and other safe areas where Muslims were by Bosnian Serb forces
  • August 1995: NATO bombed Serb forces in Sarajevo


end of the war in bosnia 1995
End of the War in Bosnia- 1995
  • Dayton Peace Accords
    • Ended the War in Bosnia
    • Wright-Patterson Air Base in Dayton, Ohio
    • Began November 1, 1995
    • Formal agreement signed on December 14, 1995
    • United States negotiating team leader: Richard Holbrooke, Serbian president Slobodan Miloševic, Croatian President FranjoTudjman, and Bosnian president Alija Izetbegovic.


aftermath war in bosnia
Aftermath- War in Bosnia
  • 140,000 Bosnians, 97,300 Serbs, 28,400 Croats killed (
  • 1.37 million refugees (


clarence thomas
Clarence Thomas
  • Republican Senate member
  • George H. W. Bush wanted him to be a Supreme Court Justice (1991)
  • Anita Faye Hill declared that he acted inappropriately toward her
  • Accepted into the Senate 52-48
  • Sparked a “women’s revolution”
  • Introduced the idea of sexual harassment


watch this video
Watch this video…
  • After watching, if you were the judge of this case what would be your ruling on these policemen? Charge or release?


the los angeles riots rodney king
The Los Angeles Riots- Rodney King
  • African-American male
  • March 3, 1991- Led Los Angeles police on a high-speed car chase and was pulled over
  • He was beaten by several police when he resisted arrest
  • The beating was caught on tape by George Holliday


the los angeles riots 1992
The Los Angeles Riots- 1992
  • April 29–May 4, 1992
  • Also known as the Rodney King riots
  • Riots began because the four white police officers who were charged were ruled innocent and released
  • Residents of the southern central section of Los Angeles, mostly black, responded with violence
  • Affects: 55 people dead, 2,383 injured, 8,000 arrested, and $1 billion in property damages.


  • North American Free Trade Agreement (1992)
  • Abolished all trade barriers between Mexico, Canada, and the United States
  • Added to the economies of all three nations, but helped Mexico the most


the oslo accords treaty
The Oslo Accords Treaty
  • Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements or Declaration of Principles (DOP)
  • Conducted in Oslo, Norway
  • Completed by August 20, 1993


  • The first intifada in 1987
  • President George H.W. Bush arranged Madrid Peace Conference in 1991 b/n Arab nations and Israel
  • Did not succeed
  • Yair Hirshfeld and Ron Pundak (Isreal)
  • (Shimon Peres later took charge)
  • Ahmad Sulayman Qurai (Abu Ala). (Palestinian Liberation Organization(PLO))


what did it say
What did it say?
  • Self-governed Palestinian land
  • IDF taken out of the Gaza Strip and West Bank
  • Recognize the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) as the Palestinian representative
  • Acknowledge Israel as independent state
  • Renounce terrorism and destruction of the Israeli state.
  • Agreement-
  • Committee for economic cooperation ->united Palestinians and Israelis in economic issues
  • Elections for a Palestinian council
  • Specific steps for “permanent” peace for five years




the signing
The Signing
  • It as signed by Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres and PLO official Abou Abbas
  • Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and PLO Chairman Yasir Arafat shook hands

"Today marks a shining moment of hope for the people of the Middle East; indeed, of the entire world“ -President Bill Clinton


  • Yassir Arafat(1929-2004)
  • Full name is Mohammed Yasser Abdel Rahman Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa al-Husseini
  • He was the chairman of the PLO
  • Founded the Fatah political party in 1959
  • Received a Nobel-Peace Prize for his work with the Oslo Accords
  • Yitzchak Rabin(1922-1925)
  • He was Involved in the Knesset before being elected Prime Minister of Israel
  • He was later elected Prime Minister of the Israel Labor Party
  • In November 1995, an Israeli named Yigal Amir assassinated Prime Minister Rabin for his cooperation in the Accords
  • Won a Nobel-Peace prize along with Shimon Peres for his accomplishments with the Oslo Accords


the outcome
The Outcome
  • The Oslo Accords angered many people on both sides which lead to more violence
  • It was eventually violated and the negotiations for permanent peace were called off
  • It worsened the relations between the Israelis and Palestinians causing deaths, and escalated conflict


  • After WWII, Britain and Italy fought for control over area
  • British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland merged-> United Republic of Somalia
  • Somali president assassinated Major General Mohammed Siad Barre took power
  • Somalia increased alliance with Soviet Union-> 1974 friendship and cooperation treaty
  • Conflict along Somali-Ethiopian border
  • Ethiopian forces aided by Soviet forces
  • Friendship treaty repealed
  • Barre turns to U.S. for help against Ethiopian forces
  • Sparks rebellion in northwest-> 1991 former British Somaliland declares independence as Somaliland
  • Barre flees to Nigeria
  • Mohammad Ali Mahdi and Mohammad Farah Aidid each claim presidency
  • Sparks Civil War


u s actions
U.S. Actions
  • UN sponsored cease-fire and peace-keeping intervention failed
  • Defeated Pres. George H.W. Bush launches Operation Restore Hope 1993
  • 27,000 U.S. soldiers sent to help UN forces
  • Objectives to distribute food and restore civil order
  • Failed-> food went to warlords
  • Aidid began to attack UN (mainly U.S. forces)
  • Primary U.S. Objective became to capture Aidid


blackhawk down
Blackhawk Down
  • Aka. Battle of Mogadishu
  • Task Force Ranger comprised of U.S. Army Rangers and Special Forces Detachment-Delta (Delta Force)
  • Plan- raid compound where Aidid was thought to be hiding
  • Rangers would create blocking positions on roads surrounding building
  • Delta Forces capture two warlords, Aidid escaped capture
  • Two Blackhawk helicopters shot down
  • Difficult to take out ground force by helicopter because of heavy ground fire
  • 17-hour gunfight in Mogadishu
  • 18 Americans dead 84 wounded
  • 500-1,000 Somalis dead, 1,000 wounded
  • Footage of U.S. Army Rangers dragged through street of Mogadishu


u s foreign policy
U.S. Foreign Policy
  • President Bill Clinton withdraws troops
  • No direct involvement in Somalia
  • Indirectly train Ethiopian soldiers to stabilize country if needed
  • Support counterterrorism efforts
  • After 9/11-> aggressive foreign policy
  • Currently 8,000 tr0ops
  • Strengthen Transitional Federal Government (TFG)


modern somalia
Modern Somalia
  • Since 1992 12 attempts at national reconciliations have been made
  • Central government still does not exist
  • Somaliland still breakaway republic-> joined by Puntland and Jubaland declares independence 1998
  • Southwestern Somaliland independent 2002
  • Radical Islamic groups establish bases there
  • After 9/11, activities of such groups are monitored by U.S. policy makers


waco siege 1993
In Waco, Texas

Religious group Branch Davidians, leader David Koresh

Gov’t thought Koresh had firearms and drugs violations at Mount Carmel Center ranch

US Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) has search warrant- gun battle for two hours and ends with four agents and six Davidian dead

The FBI then launched siege to get Koresh to surrender property

Siege lasts 51 days

FBI has final attack against Koresh with tear gas

Three fires in building- controversy on origin of fire was never proven

Result: 76 men, women and children died, including the leader Koresh

Real Video Footage

Waco Siege 1993


impeachment of clinton
Impeachment of Clinton
  • Accused off having an affair with 22 year old White House intern
  • Clinton met with his cabinet, denied the affair
  • Ken Starr gave 60,000 page report full of sexually explicit evidence Clinton later admitted to the affair on television.
  • Impeached for perjury under oath and for obstruction of justice


monica lewinsky
Monica Lewinsky
  • 22 year old white house intern from Beverly Hills
  • Had an affair with Clinton, 10 over 18 months
  • Transferred to job at the pentagon on April 5th, 1996
  • Told Co-worker Linda Tripp about the affair
  • Tripp recorded 20 hours of phone conversations as evidence
  • Who is to blame for the affair?


evidence against clinton
Evidence Against Clinton
  • Ken Starr Report
  • 20 hours of phone conversations between Lewinsky and Tripp
  • Testimony by Lewinsky


clinton s economic policies and acts
Clinton’s Economic Policies and Acts
  • Lowered taxes on the poor, middle class, and small businesses
  • Raised taxes on rich
  • Cut welfare spending and government spending
  • Establish fiscal discipline
  • Maintain lower interest rates for private sector growth
  • Invest in human capital through education
  • Increase minimum wage
  • Minimum Wage Increase Act of August 20th, 1996
  • Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993
  • Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999


did it work
Did It Work?
  • Unemployment below 4% in April, 2000
  • 90’s was the longest period of peacetime economic growth in American history
  • Minimum wage increased
  • Ended on a budget surplus


clinton s s ocial policies
Clinton’s Social Policies
  • Funded AIDS research
  • Cut back on welfare
  • Disapproved of discrimination based on gender or sexual orientation
  • Increased education
  • Lower crime
  • DOMA
  • Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell
  • Health Securities Act (failed)


al gore
Education: Harvard 1969

Relationship Status: Divorced from Tipper Aitcheson

Work Information:

Tennessee Congressmen- 1977


45th Vice President of US- 1993

Environmental Activist

Favorite Quote: “As I have said for many years throughout this land, we’re borrowing money from China to buy oil from the Persian Gulf to burn it in ways that destroys the future the future of human civilization. Every bit of that has to change” -Al Gore

"One word sums up probably the responsibility of any vice president, & that one word is 'to be prepared'."- Al Gore

Al Gore


Interests: Environment, Global

Warming, Politics, Military, News,

Business, Writing

Political View: Democrat

Religious View: Baptist

al gore1
Al Gore


  • News Feed
  • Al Gore: 1965- enrolls in Harvard, first major in English, then Government
  • Al Gore: 1970- served as army journalist in Vietnam
  • Al Gore: 1976- run for House of Representatives in Tennessee, served 1977-1985
  • Al Gore- 1985- run for Senator of Tennessee, serves until 1993
  • Al Gore: 1988- run for Democratic nomination for U.S. President, loses to Michael Dukakis
  • Al Gore: 1992- publishes first book “Earth in the Balance”
  • Al Gore: 1993- Become 45th Vice President of United States
  • Bill Clinton likes this
  • Al Gore: 2000- loses Presidential election to George W. Bush
  • Al Gore: 2007- receives Noble Peace Prize for fighting environmental issues
  • Friends (1,342) Bill Clinton ,Tipper Aitcheson, George W. Bush
european union
European Union
  • Greece, Ireland, Italy, Austria, Belgium, the Netherlands, Portugal, the United Kingdom, Spain, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Germany, Luxembourg, France
  • Boost European economy, help other uninvolved European countries, provide justice, liberty, and safety
  • Origins in the early 50s, but agreed upon freely trading without barriers in 1993


rwanda 1990 1994
Rwanda: 1990-1994
  • Divided into two social classes, Hutu and Tutsi
    • Hutu: Cultivators, poorer, 85% of the population, in control of Rwanda by 1963
    • Tutsi: Cattle-owners, more elite, better educated, less populated
  • Tutsis were exiled by Hutus and went to Uganda where they formed the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF)
  • 1990- RPF invaded Rwanda causing a civil war
  • 1993- Rwandan government and RPF agreed in Arusha Accords to cease fire and start a transitional government


rwanda u s reaction
Rwanda: U.S. Reaction
  • After civil war, United Nations Security Council created:
    • UN Observer Mission Uganda-Rwanda
    • Resolution 872- United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda: military personnel
  • During and after genocide:
    • Resolution 918- Increased number of military in UNAMIR and enforced a restriction on arms in Rwanda
    • Resolution 925
    • Resolution 929
    • International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR)


rwanda genocide
Rwanda: Genocide
  • Start of Genocide: April 6, 1994- Plane carrying President Habyariman of Rwanda and the president of Burundi were killed when it was shot down
  • From then on, genocides began…Rwandan militia/Interahamwe tried to kill all Tutsi and moderate Hutu civilians
  • Women were raped
  • Casualties: About 800,000 people killed throughout 100 days


haiti 1994
1990- Jean-Bertand Aristide elected President in Haiti

1991-Military dictator takes over gov’t by force- leader General Raoul Cédras

Aristide exiled

3,000-5,000 Haitians killed under military

Massive refugee exodus- About 40,000 Haitians leave Haiti to go to U.S. but denied so retreat back to Haiti

Haiti 1994


General Raoul Cédras


Military intervention (Operation Uphold Democracy) Sept. 19, 1994-UN sent American troops (under Clinton)

Troops bring peaceful change in Gov’t- Military leaders step down

Oct. 1994 -Aristide returns

  • World Trade Organization (1994)
  • Consists of nations from GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) and many other countries
  • 136 countries involved
  • Regulates trade agreements and sets standards for international trade


oklahoma city bombing
Oklahoma City Bombing
  • April 19th, 1995
  • Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in downtown Oklahoma City
  • Homemade truck bomb explodes at 9:03 a.m.
  • Kills 168, including 19 children, hundreds injured
  • Work of Timothy McVeigh


How is the Oklahoma City Bombing similar to the Boston Marathon bombing? Both in how it was done and how it was handled afterwards?


how is this significant
How is this Significant?
  • Very expensive
  • High casualties
  • Almost 20 kids die
  • The killer is a U.S. citizen


meet the killer
Meet the Killer
  • Timothy McVeigh (born 4/23/68) from Pendleton N.Y
  • Loves his country, hates his government
  • Gun enthusiast
  • Weapons expert
  • Wanted to help overthrow the government
  • Was arrested on get away for a series of misdemeanors
  • Why were so many Americans so shocked by this?


kosovo 1999
Kosovo- 1999
  • Tensions began between Kosovo Albanians (Kosovars) and the Serbs
  • Kosovars wanted independence from Yugoslavia
    • Milošević, president of Yugoslavia wanted to stop this
  • 1996- Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) attacked Serbian police
  • January 1999- mass killing of Albanians by Serb forces
  • March 24, 1999- NATO starts bombing targets in Yugoslavia


kosovo 19991
Kosovo- 1999
  • June 3, 1999- Milošević accepts a peace agreement with the United Nations to end the war in Kosovo
  • 850,000 people are displaced
  • U.N. force called the Kosovo Force monitors peace in Kosovo


90s fashion
90s Fashion
  • Guys:
  • Birkenstocks
  • Gelled hair with sideburns
  • Ripped baggy jeans
  • Chinos
  • Cargos
  • Backward hats
  • Girls:
  • Belly shirts
  • Big flannel/plaid shirts or vests
  • Ripped loose jeans
  • Long hair with bangs
  • Mini skirts
  • Patterns


1990s music
1990s Music
  • Destiny’s Child
  • Boyz II Men
  • Backstreet Boys
  • *NSYNC
  • New Kids on the Block
  • Tupac Shakur
  • The Notorious B.I.G.
  • Mariah Carey
  • Whitney Houston
  • Michael Jackson
  • Britney Spears
  • Christina Aguilera
  • Aerosmith
  • Nirvana


entertainment fads fun facts
Entertainment, Fads, & Fun Facts
  • Cartoons
  • Toys & Games
  • Wearing clothes backwards
  • Sagging pants were introduced
  • World Wide Web and DVD player invented in the 90s (1990 & 1995)


new kids on the block
New Kids on the Block!!
citations websites
Citations (Websites)


web citations continued
Web Citations Continued


database citations
Database Citations
  • Hastedt, Glenn. "North American Free Trade Agrement (1992)." American History Online. Facts On File News Services, 2004. Web. 10 May 2013.
  • Hardman, Stephen, and John Korasick. "World Trade Organization (WTO)." American History Online. Facts On File News Services, n.d. Web. 10 May 2013.


citations pictures
Citations (Pictures)


pic citations continued
Pic Citations Continued


book citation
Book Citation
  • Kallen, Stuart A. A Cultural History of the United States: Through the Decades - the 1990s. San Diego, CA: Lucent, 1999. Print.


citations ar
Citations AR
works cited
Works Cited
  • Information-
  • Facts on File Database (


works cited1
Works Cited
  • Pictures:


works cited2
Works Cited
  • Becker, D.J. "Former Yugoslavia." Facts on File. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 May 2013. < ItemID=WE53&iPin=EUNN0146&SingleRecord=True>.
  • Horvitz, Leslie. "Rwandan Genocide." Facts on File. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 May 2013. < ItemID=WE53&iPin=EWCG463&SingleRecord=True>.
  • Patterson, A. "Apartheid and the United Nations." Facts on File. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 May 2013. <apartheid and the United Nations>.
  • Pitman, Julia. "Nelson Mandela." Facts on File. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 May 2013. < ItemID=WE53&iPin=WHVI213&SingleRecord=True>.
  • Sides, Josh. "Los Angeles Riot." Facts on File. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 May 2013.