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Mr. Maldonado APUSH/USH. The Cold War. Beginning of the Cold War. U.S. Soviet union. Communism State-controlled economy No opposing political parties (totalitarian). Democracy Capitalism Voting by the people (competing political parties). Suspicions Begin. Soviet Union

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beginning of the cold war
Beginning of the Cold War

U.S.

Soviet union

Communism

State-controlled economy

No opposing political parties (totalitarian)

  • Democracy
  • Capitalism
  • Voting by the people (competing political parties)
suspicions begin
Suspicions Begin
  • Soviet Union
    • Resentful that the U.S. didn’t help in Europe sooner
    • Manhattan Project (Atomic bomb) was kept a secret
  • U.S.
    • Resentful that the Soviet Union made a pact with Hitler
united nations
United Nations
  • Peacekeeping organization founded after WWII (1945)
  • Both the U.S. and the Soviet Union joined
potsdam conference july 1945
Potsdam Conference (July, 1945)
  • U.S., Great Britain and the Soviet Union met
  • Final wartime conference
  • Soviet Union decided not to allow Poland and other Eastern European nations to have free elections
  • Reparations would be taken from German occupied zones (split in 4)
aims for europe after wwii
Aims for Europe (after WWII)

U.S.

Soviet union

Encourage the spread of communism

Rebuild using resources from Eastern Europe

Control Eastern Europe to balance U.S. influence in Western Europe

Maintain a divided Germany

  • All nations given the right of self-determination
    • Choose whichever type of government it wants
  • Gain access to Eastern Europe’s resources
  • Reunite Germany, belief that Europe would be more productive
satellite nations
Satellite Nations
  • The Soviet Union set-up communist governments in Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania and Poland
  • Became known as satellite nations
    • Countries controlled by the Soviet Union
containment policy
Containment Policy
  • Truman and the U.S. began a containment policy
    • Take measures to prevent the spread of communism
  • Churchill described Eastern Europe as being under an “Iron Curtain”
cold war begins 1945 1991
Cold War Begins (1945-1991)
  • Conflict between the U.S. and the Soviet Union that never resulted in combat
truman doctrine
Truman Doctrine
  • Truman asked for $400M from Congress to aid Greece and Turkey
    • Fight off communism
  • U.S. Congress agreed…
  • U.S. would support countries in resisting communism
marshall plan 1947
Marshall Plan (1947)
  • Secretary of State George Marshall proposed that the U.S. provide aid to the people of Europe
  • 16 countries received $13B in aid
  • By 1952, Western Europe began to flourish
    • Helped stop the spread of communism in Western Europe
germany
Germany
  • U.S./Britain/France decided to combine their three occupational zones into one nation
  • Stalin decided to block access to West Berlin (capital of Germany)
berlin airlift
Berlin Airlift
  • U.S. and British would drop food and other supplies to West Berlin for 327 days
  • Boosted American prestige around the world
  • Stalin lifted the blockade of West Berlin in 1949
division of germany
Division of Germany
  • West Germany
    • Federal Republic of Germany
    • Aided by the U.S. and other western European countries
  • East Germany
    • German Democratic Republic
    • Soviet controlled
slide29
NATO
  • The countries of Western Europe allied with the U.S. and Canada to form NATO
    • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
  • 12 countries pledged military support to one another in the event of an attack
  • First time in U.S. history the U.S. enters into a military alliance during peacetime
slide30
NATO
  • Greece and Turkey joined in 1952
  • West Germany joined in 1955
  • U.S. would not keep an isolationist policy any longer
china
China
  • Led by Mao Zedong and his Red Army, China became a Communist country in 1949
    • Formed the People’s Republic of China
  • U.S. refused to acknowledge the new government of China
    • American people are stunned, felt the U.S. should have done more to prevent this from happening
the korean war
The Korean War
  • Division of Korea at the 38° parallel
  • The Soviet Union controlled the North
    • North Korea
  • The U.S. controlled the South
    • South Korea
the korean war1
The Korean War
  • The U.S. only left 500 troops in S. Korea
    • Soviet Union felt they could easily take it over
  • June 25, 1950
    • N. Korea attacks S. Korea
    • United Nations Security Council passed a resolution to stop the invasion of S. Korea
the korean war2
The Korean War
  • Led by General Douglas MacArthur, U.S. led forces from South Korea drove the North Koreans back passed the 38° parallel
  • China joined the war on N. Korea’s side
    • Chinese forces outnumbered the UN forces 10-1
macarthur lashes out at truman
MacArthur Lashes Out at Truman
  • Gen. MacArthur began to criticize Truman
    • Felt an invasion of China was necessary
    • Attack China with nuclear weapons
    • Truman was against this idea
  • Truman (President = Commander in Chief)
    • Fired Gen. Douglas MacArthur on Apr. 1, 1951
  • Cease-fire and stalemate (July, 1951)
    • Demilitarized zone (38° parallel)
    • Armistice
loyalty review board 1947
Loyalty Review Board (1947)
  • Investigate government employees and dismiss those who are found to be disloyal to the U.S. government
  • 91 “subversive” organizations were found
  • 212 government employees were dismissed as potential risks
    • 2,900 resigned, felt investigations violated their Constitutional rights
house un american activities committee huac
House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
  • Investigated communist influence in the movie industry
    • Believed communist propaganda was being spread in films
  • The Hollywood Ten
    • 10 witnesses refused to testify, felt it violated Constitutional rights
    • Sent to prison
  • Hollywood began to blacklist actors, film directors, etc., for having possible Communist backgrounds
alger hiss
Alger Hiss
  • Communist spy accused Alger Hiss (State Department official) of helping spy for the Soviet Union
  • Hiss convicted of perjury (lying – denied accusations) sent to prison
the rosenberg s
The Rosenberg’s
  • Sept. 3, 1949
    • Soviet Union detonates an atomic bomb
    • U.S. felt they were 3-5 years away from having one
  • German-physicist Klaus Fuchs admitted giving the Soviet Union information about the atomic bomb
    • Implicated Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
  • Rosenberg’s found guilty and given the death penalty
the rosenberg s1
The Rosenberg’s
  • Rosenberg’s claimed they were being accused due to their radical beliefs and their Jewish background
  • Pleaded the 5th Amendment
  • Killed by electric chair June, 1953
    • First U.S. civilians executed for espionage
sen joseph mccarthy
Sen. Joseph McCarthy
  • Senator from Wisconsin (Republican)
    • Ineffective
    • Fearing possible defeat in 1952 elections…decided to look for an issue that would save his career
  • McCarthyism
    • McCarthy began to attack/accuse people of being communist without any evidence
  • Claimed to have information, at various times, of 57, 81, 205 Communists in the State Department
    • Never produced a single name
mccarthyism
McCarthyism
  • Did his name-calling only in the Senate
    • McCarthy had legal immunity, would not be eligible to be sued for slander
    • Slander: Spoken lies
  • Downfall
    • McCarthy began to accuse the U.S. Army of Communist ties (1954)
    • Live-TV Senate hearings
    • Senate condemned him for “improper conduct”
the h bomb
The H-Bomb
  • After the Soviet Union detonated an atomic bomb, U.S. felt a need to develop an even more powerful bomb
    • Hydrogen Bomb
      • 67 times more powerful than the bomb dropped on Hiroshima
  • November 1, 1952
    • U.S. detonated the first hydrogen bomb
  • August, 1953
    • Soviet Union detonated their first hydrogen bomb
brinkmanship
Brinkmanship
  • President Dwight D. Eisenhower (elected 1952)
  • Secretary of State
    • John Foster Dulles
  • Dulles felt the way to stop the spread of communism is by promising to use ALL of its force, including nuclear weapons, against aggressor nations
brinkmanship1
Brinkmanship
  • Willingness to go to the edge of all-out war
  • Eisenhower trimmed the U.S. Army and Navy, however, expanded his Air Force and the buildup of nuclear weapons
    • Soviet Union did the same
central intelligence agency cia
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
  • U.S. began to rely heavily on information obtained by the CIA
    • Used spies to gather information
  • Began to do covert operations in the Middle East and Latin America
    • Covert: Secret/Undercover
slide74
Iran
  • Mohammed Mossadegh
    • Nationalized Iran’s oil (took it away from private business, owned by Britain, and put it under Iran’s control)
  • CIA funded anti-Mossadegh supporters (1953)
    • Re-installed the Shah of Iran (pro-U.S.)
  • Shah of Iran took over…returned oil fields to Western companies
guatemala
Guatemala
  • Pres. Eisenhower believed the Guatemalan government had pro-Communist beliefs
    • Gave 200,000 acres of American owned land to peasants
  • CIA trained an Army…invaded Guatemala
    • Guatemalan Army refused to protect the President…led to his resignation
    • CIA-trained Army takes over
warsaw pact
Warsaw Pact
  • The Soviet Union and 7 other Eastern European countries made a pact
    • Similar to NATO
  • In response to West Germany re-arming
khrushchev
Khrushchev
  • Nikita Khrushchev became the leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Stalin
  • Favored a peaceful co-existence
    • Believed Communism would spread all over the world
open skies
“Open Skies”
  • Eisenhower met with Soviet leaders in Geneva, Switzerland
  • Eisenhower proposed an “open skies” resolution
    • Allow each other to fly planes over each other’s territory to guard against surprise nuclear attacks
  • Soviet Union rejected the proposal
u 2 shot down
U-2 Shot Down
  • CIA began secret-high-altitude flights over Soviet territory
    • U-2: Plane that can fly at high-altitudes without being detected
    • Infrared cameras photographed troop movements and missile sites
  • Eisenhower wanted to cancel the flights (had resumed talks with Khrushchev about “open skies”— May, 1960)
    • Dulles asked for one last flight…
u 2 shot down1
U-2 Shot Down
  • May 1, 1960
    • Francis Gary Powers, piloted U-2, shot down by a Soviet pilot
    • Powers parachutes into Soviet-controlled territory
      • Sentenced to 10 years in prison
  • U.S. denied spying on the Soviets
    • Soviets had evidence…Eisenhower had to reluctantly admit to it
    • Khrushchev demanded an apology and a halt to all U-2 flights
    • Eisenhower agreed to stop the U-2 flights…no apology was made
  • Khrushchev angrily called off another summit meeting with Eisenhower and an invitation to the Soviet Union
the suez war 1955
The Suez War (1955)
  • Gamal Abdul-Nasser, head of Egypt
    • Wanted to construct a dam
    • Tried to play the Soviets/U.S. to acquire more funding
  • Dulles withdrew U.S. funding once he learned Nasser was making deals with the Soviets
  • Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal (formerly privately owned by France/Britain)
    • Angered France/Britain…would not allow supplies to flow into Israel
    • Canal was supposed to be open for all nations
the suez war 19551
The Suez War (1955)
  • Israel, Britain and France sent troops to control the Mediterranean part of the Suez Canal
  • UN stepped in, stopped the fighting
    • Persuaded Israel, Britain and France to withdraw
    • Egypt kept the Suez Canal
eisenhower doctrine 1957
Eisenhower Doctrine (1957)
  • Soviet Union gained support in the Middle East for standing with Egypt
  • Eisenhower declared that the U.S. would help any Middle Eastern country against attack by a Communist country
hungarian uprising 1956
Hungarian Uprising (1956)
  • Hungarian people rose up, under leadership of Imre Nagy
    • Demanded a democratic government, free elections and the removal of Soviet troops
    • Denounced the Warsaw Pact
  • Soviets killed 30,000 Hungarians, captured Nagy
    • Nagy executed…200,000 Hungarians flee
hungarian uprising 19561
Hungarian Uprising (1956)
  • Even though the U.S. had said they would support people in their fight against Communism (Truman Doctrine)
    • U.S. did nothing
  • The UN also did nothing
    • Soviet Union was a member and used its VETO to stop any interference from UN Security Council
the space race
The Space Race
  • Oct. 4, 1957
    • Soviets launch Sputnik
    • First satellite to orbit the Earth
  • Jan. 31, 1958
    • U.S. successfully launched its first satellite