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The Cold War

The Cold War

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The Cold War

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  1. The Cold War APUSH: Chapter 36: The Cold War Begins

  2. What Is The Cold War? • Intense rivalry between the U.S. & Soviet Union

  3. Essential Question • 1. What were the origins and developments of the cold war?

  4. Origins of The Cold War: • 1. Ideological Differences: Communism vs. Capitalism • (economic, political, philosophical disputes) • 2. Competition for global power & Influence • 3. Mutual Distrust • 4. Atomic Weapons – “Arms Race”

  5. American Presidents – Cold War • 1. Harry Truman 1948-1952 • 2. Dwight D. Eisenhower 1952-1960 • 3. John F. Kennedy 1960-

  6. Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union)_

  7. United Nations • Charter of United Nations (1945) • 1. “maintenance of international peace and security” • 2. 5 permanent members • U.S., Soviet Union, Britain, France, China • 3. 15 members in total

  8. Origins of Cold War (after WWII) • 1. Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union) • Established Spheres of Influence • In Eastern Europe

  9. Origins of Cold War • 2. Eastern European nations Became Soviet “satellites” (1946-1948) • 3. Soviets refused to sign plan eliminating atomic weapons

  10. Origins of Cold War • 4. Soviets refused to allow free elections in Eastern Europe • 5. Stalin hoped to establish “communist block” • clear violation of war conference agreements

  11. Winston Churchill : • “An iron curtain has descended across Europe” - 1946

  12. Policy of Containment • President Truman interested in “containing communism from spreading” • Possible Soviet domination a threat to U.S. • Truman Doctrine (1947): funding to assist countries in repelling a possible communist take over

  13. Marshall Plan • A Plan to re-build war torn Western Europe • $3 billion over 4 yr period • Proposed by: George Marshall, U.S. Secretary of State

  14. Berlin Airlift, 1948 • Joseph Stalin • Cut off city of Berlin from Western contact • Blocked all routes into Berlin with Soviet troops • Why? • tired of U.S. intrusion in European affairs

  15. Berlin Blockade, 1948

  16. Berlin Airlift, 1948 • American planes delivered supplies to city • For 11 months

  17. Berlin Airlift- American “Candy Bombers” • American servicemen • Flew over Berlin and dropped candy for city’s children

  18. Alliances… • President Truman joined alliance with W. European countries, Canada, Iceland • NATO –North Atlantic treaty organization

  19. Alliances… • Stalin’s response: • Warsaw Pact – 1955 • Communist Eastern European military alliance • Once a member, a nation can NEVER leave!

  20. The Atomic Race Begins • Superior large scale weapons • Soviet Union exploded first A- Bomb 1949 • 1952 U.S. developed Hydrogen bomb • 1,000 X’s stronger than A-bomb

  21. U.S. Domestic Policy • 1. National Security Act (1947)- created the Department of Defense, the National Security Council, and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) • 2. NSC-68- secret document discussed Soviet plans for world domination, encouraged U.S. to build up military

  22. Containment in Asia • China “fell” to communism 1949 • 1950 Mao Tse- Tung and Joseph Stalin signed pact • 2 large nations = “communist block”

  23. Korean War • 1945 Allies divided Korea • Border between North & South 38th Parallel • North Korea = communist • China and Soviet Union supplied weapons

  24. Korean War • N. Korea invaded South Korea, June 1950 • U.S. authorized “police action” of military force to liberate South Korea • Conflict ended in “stalemate”

  25. Dwight D. Eisenhower • Became President, 1952 • American foreign policy : He would support nations who sought liberation from communism

  26. Eisenhower’s Policies • 1. “brinkmanship” – U.S. would push aggressor nation to the “brink “of nuclear war, forcing them to back down • 2. “massive retaliation” – U.S. would release arsenal of nuclear weapons on any threat

  27. Geneva Convention, 1954 • French lost colonies in Indochina • Geneva Convention agreed to split up territory: • Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia • Divided Vietnam into communist north, anti-communist south

  28. Eisenhower Doctrine, 1957 • Policy designed to counter Soviet influence in the Middle East by offering military aid to those countries seeking help from resisting Communist aggression

  29. Joseph Stalin died, 1953 • Nikita Krushchev took over Soviet Union • 1958 demanded removal of westerners from Berlin • Eisenhower called meeting…

  30. Tense Times… • Soviets discovered American U-2 spy plane • And it was shot down 2 weeks before meeting…

  31. John F. Kennedy • Elected President 1960 • Defeated Richard Nixon

  32. Berlin Wall • Soviets began construction, 1961 • To prevent East Berliners from escaping to West

  33. President Kennedy • Traveled to Berlin, 1963 • Did not stop construction • Proclaimed support for people in Berlin "Ich bin ein Berliner."

  34. Castro Communizes Cuba • Dictator Batista overthrown by Fidel Castro 1959 • Established communist state • Asked Soviets for Help • U.S. cut off diplomatic relations w/ Castro

  35. Bay of Pigs • April 1961 • U.S. planned Invasion of Cuba • Attempt to overthrow Castro • Failure • Embarrassment to President Kennedy

  36. Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 • Fidel Castro & Khrushchev joined forces • U.S. spy plane discovered • Building of nuclear missile sites in Cuba

  37. Kennedy Ordered … • Removal of missiles • U.S. enacted naval blockade against Cuba • Khrushchev agreed to remove missiles if… • U.S. agreed never to invade Cuba again , and remove their missiles from Turkey

  38. American Espionage “ Red Scare” • Fear of spies in the U.S. • Julius and Ethel Rosenberg – accused of delivering atomic secrets to Soviets • Convicted of treason & espionage 1951 • Sentenced to death

  39. Senator Joseph McCarthy • Wanted to uncover & prosecute American Communists • Used media to his advantage • His accusations mostly false • Hearings televised • Modern day “witch hunt” .

  40. Living in Fear… • Threat of nuclear war • Bomb shelters • People purchased canned goods/water • “duck and cover” drills in schools

  41. Living In Fear… • The National Highway Act 1956 • Created interstate freeway system • 42,000 miles of road

  42. Interstate Highways… • Meant to provide : quick evacuation , emergency landing of planes, transport of missiles

  43. Space Race • 1. Russian Space Satellite Sputnik launched 1957 • 2. U.S. created National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) 1958 • Congress allocated millions to better prepare students in math, science, foreign languages

  44. Cause of Cold WAR? • View #1: Stalin wanted world domination, U.S. had no choice but to defend democratic, capitalist values. • View #2: Truman adopted an aggressive foreign policy, and sought to create American spheres of influence throughout world

  45. Chapter 37: The Eisenhower Era 1952-1960 Popular Culture & American Society in the 1950’s

  46. 1950’s Popular Culture

  47. Servicemen’s Re-adjustment Act, 1944 • Also known as the “G.I.” Bill • Huge impact on American society & economy in the 1950’s • Opportunities for WWII Veterans

  48. G.I. Bill Offered… • 1. University education • 2. Vocational Training • 3. Small business loans • 3. Home loans

  49. Universities • Award 2x’s as many degrees in 1950 as opposed to 1940 • 8 million vets used G.I. funds to attend Colleges &Universities

  50. 1950’s Prosperity • Credit Cards: Diner’s Club, American Express, 1958 • Low interest home loans