The Cold War 1945-1960USA vs. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union)Democracy vs. Communist DictatorshipCapitalism vs. Communism
Key Concept: How did the Cold War affect the domestic and foreign policies of the United States? Actors and writers protest the Hollywood Blacklist. • Domestic Policies: • 1. McCarthyism • 2. HUAC • House Un-American Activities Committee • 3. Loyalty oaths • 4. Blacklists • 5. Bomb shelters • Foreign Policies: • 1. Korean War • 2. Arms Race • 3. Truman Doctrine • 4. Eisenhower Doctrine A 1950s era bomb shelter
Key Concept: What were the six major strategies of the Cold War? The six major strategies were: 1. Brinkmanship, 2. Espionage, 3. Foreign aid, 4. Alliances, 5. Propaganda, 6. Surrogate-Proxy wars. 1. 3. 2. 4. 6. 5.
Post WWII/Cold War Goals for US Promote open markets for US goods to prevent another depression Promote democracy throughout the world, especially in Asia and Africa Stop the spread of communism “Domino Effect” Containment
Post WWII/Cold War Goals for USSR Create greater security for itself lost tens of millions of people in WWII and Stalin’s purges feared a strong Germany Establish defensible borders Encourage friendly governments on its borders Spread communism around the world “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and, in some cases, increasing measure of control from Moscow.” Excerpt from Winston Churchill’s “Iron Curtain Speech.”
What were the origins of the Cold War? Explain its broad ideological, economic, political, and military components. Analyze and discuss America’s plans of containment and economic aid and the consequent events that characterized foreign affairs between 1945 and 1952. What were the causes, conduct, and consequences of the Korean War? How did the Cold War affect domestic economic and political affairs in the 1950s? How and why did civil rights emerge as a national domestic issue after 1954? THIS IS ON YOUR SHEET
Former Allies Clash • In the USSR the state controlled all property and economic activity • In the Capitalist American system private citizens controlled economic activity • In the USSR the Communist Party established a totalitarian government with one party • In the US voting by the people chose the President and members of Congress with competing parties • Spread of Capitalism and US trade? • World-wide Communist revolution?
Mistrust during the War • The US knew that Stalin signed a non-aggression pact with Hitler in 1939 • Stalin resented the fact that the Allies took so long to open a second front in Europe • Stalin resented that the US had tried to keep the atomic bomb a secret from an ally the USSR • The United Nations became arena of competition • Truman did not have the diplomatic skills or the personal relationship FDR had with Stalin
The wartime cooperation between the United States and the Soviet Union ended largely because they disagreed over the future of Eastern Europe and the development of nuclear weapons. At the end of World War II, the Allies did agree to disarm Germany, dismantle its military production facilities, and permit the occupying powers to extract reparations. However, plans for future reunification of Germany stalled, leading to its division into East and West Germany. As tensions mounted, the United States came to see Soviet expansionism as a threat to its own interests and began shaping a new policy of containment. .
Descent into Cold War, 1945–1946 Roosevelt had been able to work with Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, and in part as a memorial to Roosevelt, the Senate approved America’s participation in the United Nations in 1945.
Since the Soviet Union had been a victim of German aggression in both world wars, Stalin was determined to prevent the rebuilding and rearming of its traditional foe, and insisted on a security zone of friendly governments in Eastern Europe for protection. • At the Yalta Conference, America and Britain agreed to recognize this Soviet “sphere of influence,” with the proviso that “free and unfettered elections” would be held as soon as possible, but, after Yalta, the Soviets made no move to hold the elections and rebuffed western attempts to reorganize the Soviet-installed governments.
On the 4th of February 1945 the Big Three (Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin) convened at Yalta, on the Crimean Peninsula. It was the second of the large war time conferences, preceded by Tehran in 1943, and succeeded by Potsdam (after Roosevelt's death) later in 1945.
The Potsdam Conference • In July 1945 the Big Three met in Potsdam near Berlin • Truman, Churchill/Attlee and Stalin • By July 1945 the USSR had consolidated its grip on Eastern Europe • Truman took a tougher stance with Stalin • Stalin was concerned about security and did not keep his promise for free elections in Poland, he wanted a buffer from the West and a divided weak Germany • The USSR wanted reparations from Germany, the US wanted to trade in Eastern Europe and Reunite Germany
At Potsdam, the Allies agreed to disarm Germany, dismantle its military production facilities, and permit the occupying powers to extract reparations. • Plans for future reunification of Germany stalled, and the foundation was laid for what would later become the division of Germany into East and West Germany.
Satellite Nations • Stalin installed Communist Gov. in Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Poland • Satellite Nation is a country economically or politically linked to the USSR
Containment • In February 1946 George F. Kennan an American diplomat in Moscow proposed a policy of containment • Containment was the doctrine in which military, economic, and diplomatic strategies were to be used to turn back communism • Europe was divided into two political regions a mostly democratic Western Europe and a communist Eastern Europe
The Cold War • The Cold War was an indirect state of conflict between the US and USSR that would dominate global affairs and US Foreign Policy from 1945-1991 • In March 1947 Truman asked Congress for $400 million in aid for Greece and Turkey so they could resist communist takeovers and Communist influence – The Truman Doctrine • The US would assist “free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.”
Truman Doctrine 1947: British help Greek government fight communist guerrillas. They appealed to America for aid, and the response was the Truman Doctrine. America promised it would support free countries to help fight communism. Greece received large amounts of arms and supplies and by 1949 had defeated the communists. The Truman Doctrine was significant because it showed that America, the most powerful democratic country, was prepared to resist the spread of communism throughout the world.
For the next forty years, the ideological conflict between capitalism and communism determined the foreign policy of the United States and the Soviet Union and, later, China. The United States pursued a policy designed to contain Communist expansion in Europe, the Middle East, and Asia. • Truman Doctrine was an early version of the “Domino Theory”
The Marshall Plan • After the war Western Europe was in chaos, no fuel, no food, no shelter • Many Refugees had to bear one of the coldest winters in 1946-1947 • The US feared Communism would spread to Western Europe • In June 1947 Sec. of State George C. Marshall proposed the US provide aid to all European nations • Between 1947 and 1951, 16 countries received $13 billion in aid
The reconstruction plan was developed at a meeting of the participating European states in July 12 1947. The Marshall Plan offered the same aid to the Soviet Union and its allies, if they would make political reforms and accept certain outside controls. In fact, America worried that the Soviet Union would take advantage of the plan and therefore made the terms deliberately hard for the USSR to accept.
The Marshall Plan met with opposition in Congress until a Communist coup occurred in Czechoslovakia in February 1948, after which Congress voted overwhelmingly to approve funds for the program.
Over the next four years, the United States contributed nearly $13 billion to a highly successful recovery; Western European economies revived, opening new opportunities for international trade, while Eastern Europe was influenced not to participate by the Soviet Union.
The United States, France, and Britain initiated a program of economic reform in West Berlin, which alarmed the Soviets, who responded with a blockade of the city. • Truman countered the blockade with airlifts of food and fuel; the blockade, lifted in May 1949, made West Berlin a symbol of resistance to communism.
The Berlin Crisis: June 1948-May 1949 1948: three western controlled zones of Germany united; grew in prosperity due to the Marshall Plan West wanted East to rejoin; Stalin feared it would hurt Soviet security. June 1948: Stalin decided to gain control of West Berlin, which was deep inside the Eastern Sector Cuts road, rail and canal links with West Berlin, hoping to starve it into submission West responded by airlifting supplies to allow West Berlin to survive May 1949: USSR admitted defeat, lifted blockade Map of Berlin divided into zones after WWII Map of Germany divided into zones after WWII A plane flies in supplies during the Berlin Airlift.
NATO • In May of 1949 The Federal Republic of Germany was established ( West Germany) • In April 1949, Ten Western European nations joined with the US and Canada and formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization ( NATO) • It was a defensive military alliance in which an attack ( by the USSR) on one was an attack on all (500,000 troops in Western Europe) • In 1955 the USSR formed The Warsaw Pact with its allies to counter NATO
The Soviets organized the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance in 1949 and the military Warsaw Pact in 1955. • In September 1949, American military intelligence had proof that the Soviets had detonated an atomic bomb; this revelation called for a major reassessment of American foreign policy. • To devise a new diplomatic and military blueprint, Truman turned to the National Security Council (NSC), an advisory body established by the National Security Act of 1947 that also created the Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency.
The National Security Council gave a report, known as NSC-68, recommending the development of a hydrogen bomb, increasing U.S. conventional forces, establishing a strong system of alliances, and increasing taxes in order to finance defense building. • The Korean War, which began two months after NSC-68 was completed, helped to transform the report’s recommendations into reality, as the Cold War spawned a hot war.
NSC-68 was a 58-page classified report written in February-April 1950 by Paul Nitze and issued by the United States National Security Council on April 14, 1950 during the presidency of Harry Truman. The report, written in the aftermath of the decision to build a hydrogen bomb, was declassified in 1977 and has become one of the classic historical documents of the Cold War era.
American policy in Asia was focused on the region’s global economic importance as well as the desire to contain communism there. After dismantling Japan’s military forces and weaponry, American occupation forces began transforming the country into a bulwark of Asian capitalism. At the end of World War II, both the Soviets and the United States had troops in Korea, which was divided into competing spheres of influence. In June 1950, North Korea invaded South Korea. Truman ordered U.S. troops to repel the invaders, leading to three years of vicious fighting. An armistice, brokered by President Eisenhower, was signed in July 1953. Korea was divided near the original border at the thirty-eighth parallel.
American policy in Asia was based as much on Asia’s importance to the world economy as on the desire to contain communism. • After dismantling Japan’s military forces and weaponry, American occupation forces drafted a democratic constitution and oversaw the rebuilding of the economy.
In China, a civil war had been raging since the 1930s between Communist forces, led by Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai, and conservative Nationalist forces, under Chiang Kai-shek. • For a time the Truman administration attempted to help the Nationalists by providing more than $2 billion in aid, but in August 1949 aid was cut off when reform did not occur; in October 1949 the People’s Republic of China was formally established under Mao, and Chiang Kai-shek’s forces fled to Taiwan.
The “China lobby” in Congress viewed Mao’s success as a defeat for the United States; the China lobbies influence blocked U.S. recognition of “Red China” leading instead to U.S. recognition of the exiled Nationalist government in Taiwan. • The United States also prevented China’s admission to the United Nations; for almost twenty years U.S. administrations treated mainland China, the world’s most populous country, as a diplomatic nonentity.
At the end of World War II, both the Soviets and the United States had troops in Korea and divided the country into competing spheres of influence at the thirty-eighth parallel. • The Soviets supported a Communist government, led by Kim Il Sung, in North Korea and the United States backed a Korean nationalist, Syngman Rhee, in South Korea. • On June 25, 1950, North Koreans invaded across the thirty-eighth parallel; Truman asked the United Nations Security Council to authorize a “police action” against the invaders.