Day 62: The Ferment of Reform and Culture. Baltimore Polytechnic Institute November 27, 2012 A/A.P . U.S. History Mr. Green. Rise of a Mass Democracy. Objectives: Students will analyze antebellum reform movements including religion, education, prohibition, and women’s rights.
Baltimore Polytechnic Institute
November 27, 2012
A/A.P. U.S. History
Students will analyze antebellum reform movements including religion, education, prohibition, and women’s rights.
Describe the widespread revival of religion in the early nineteenth century and its effects on American culture and social reform.
Describe the cause of the most important American reform movements of the period, identifying which were most successful and why.
The Second Great Awakening releases a torrent of religious fervor, combining a belief in moral self-improvement and a wish to expand democracy by means of evangelicalism. Religion and Reform are among the new AP themes.
From the 1830s to 1850s, the nation experiences a burst of reform activity. Various movements set out to democratize the nation further by combating what they see as institutions and ideas that thwart the expression of democratic values and principles.
The spectacular religious revivals of the Second Great Awakening reversed a trend toward secular rationalism in American culture and helped to fuel a spirit of social reform. In the process, religion was increasingly feminized, while women, in turn, took the lead in movements of reform, including those designed to improve their own condition.
Continue your work on Presidential Election Charts 1836, 1840, 1844, 1848
Decades Chart for the 1840’s due Monday
Quiz on Thursday covering Chapter 15
Cooperative societies virtually all failed or changed their methods sooner or later
New Harmony – colony sank out of confusion
Brook Farm – lost a new building before it was finished in 1846, collapsed in debt
Oneida Community – free love, birth control, eugenics to get better offspring
Lasted 30 years making good steel traps and silver plates
Shakers – Upstate New York
Extinct by 1940 because they prohibited marriage and sex
Prof. Benjamin Silliman, Prof. Louis Agassiz, Prof. Asa Gray, John J. Audubon – Birds of America
Audubon Society for the protection of birds
bleeding was common cure, smallpox plagues still an issue, yellow fever in Philadelphia 1793, malaria, no knowledge of germs and sanitation
Life expectancy was 40 years for a white born in 1850
Decayed teeth, tooth extraction done by blacksmith
Medicine by regular doctors was harmful
Surgery performed after stiff whiskey, patient tied down
Laughing gas and ether developed in early 1840s
Imitated European models – public buildings in Greek and Roman style
1820-1850 Greek revival
Thomas Jefferson brought classical designs with Monticello
Painting suffered because people just didn’t have time. Working hard for dollars
Early painters went to England
People thought it was a sinful waste of time
Some competent painters like Gilbert Stuart, Charles Wilson Peale (MD), John Trumbull
Hudson River School known for landscapes
Painting’s competition was the daguerreotype in 1839
Minstrel shows – white actors in blackface singing “darky music”
Stephen Foster went to the south once, then went back to PA to write some of the most popular American folk music – captured spirit of the slaves
Most Americans wrote political essays, not literature
Common Sense, Federalist papers
After 1812, nationalism increased and the northeast wasn’t too focused on surviving – had time to write
Knickerbocker Group in NY, Washington Irving, James Fenimore Cooper, William Cullen Bryant
Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson celebrated what literary movement?
Transcendentalism – truth transcends the senses, cannot be found by observation alone, everyone has inner light that can illuminate the highest truth and put him or her in direct touch with God -no precise definition
-self-reliance, self-culture, self-discipline
Thoreau was jailed for not paying taxes – condemned a government that supported slavery
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
John Greenleaf Whittier
James Russell Lowell
Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes
Louisa May Alcott
William Gilmore Simms
Edgar Allen Poe
Orphaned, had diseases, wife died of TB at 13
Failed to kill himself, went to drinking
Struggle between good and evil, original sin
Stories of the south seas where he traveled and escaped cannibals
William H. Prescott
Finish reading all of Chapter 15
12 Question reading check at the beginning of class.