European Culture -- AnIntroduction
Division One : Greek and Roman Culture • 1．希腊罗马Homer <Iliad> <Odyssey> Author of epicsSappho Lyric poet • 三大悲剧家：Aeschylus <Prometheus bound> <Persians> <Agamemnon> Tragic dramatistSophocles <Oedipus the King> <Electra> <Antigone> Tragic dramatistEuripides <Medea> <Trojan Women> <Andromache> Tragic dramatist • 喜剧家：Aristophanes <Frogs><Clouds><Wasps><Birds> Comedy writer
历史学家：Herodotus wrote about wars between Greeks and Persians Father of historyThucydides wrote about wars between Athens and Sparta and Athens and Syracusethe greatest historian that have ever lived • 哲学和科学：Pythagoras All things were numbers founder of scientific mathematicsHeracleitue Fire is the primary elementDemocritus Materialist, one of the earliest exponents of the atomic theorySocrates Dissect of oneself, virtue was high worth of life, dialectical methodPlato Man have knowledge because of the existence of certain general ideas
<Dialogues>Aristotle Direct observation, theory follow fact, idea and matter together made concrete individual realities <Ethics><Politics> <Poetics and Rhetoric>Euclid <Elements> a textbook of geometryArchimedes when a body is immersed in water its loss of weight is equal to the weight of the water displaced “Give me a place to stand and I’ll move the World”Others Diogenes (the Cynics) Pyrrhon(the Sceptics) Epicurus (the Epicureans) Zeno (the Stoics)4th century B.C.后半叶希腊在Alexander, king of Macedon的领导下，5th century B.C.达到顶峰，146 B.C.被罗马攻克
d. Contending Schools of Thoughts • Sophists, who were teachers of the art of arguing. The most eminent of them was Protagoras, born about 500 B.C., who wrote a book On the Gods. He is chiefly noted for his doctrine that “ man is the measure of all the things.” • In the 4th century B.C., four schools of philosoph- ers often argued with each other. They were the Cynics, the Sceptics, the Epicureans and the Stoics. The Cynics, leader named Diogenes, he rejected all the conventions, and advocated self-sufficiency
e. Science • We have seen that many Greek philosophers were at the same time scientists. Thus Plato was a mathematician and Aristotle contribut- ed to Zoology. Two men may be mentioned for what they did to push science forward. They are Euclid and Archimedes. Euclid is well-known for his Elements, a textbook of geometry. Archimedes did important work not only in geometry, but also in arithmetic, mechanics, and hydrostatics.
and extreme simplicity in life. He lived by begg- Ing. He proclaimed his brotherhood, not only with the whole human race, but also with animals. On the other hand, he had no patience with the rich and powerful. The Sceptics followed Pyrrhon , who held that not all knowledge was attainable. He and his followers doubted the truth of what others accepted as true. The Epicureans were disciples of Epicurus, who believed pleasure to be the highest good in life, but by pleasure he meant, not sensual
enjoyment, but freedom from pain and emotion- al upheaval. Epicurus was a materialist, he believed the world consisted of atoms. Opposed to the Epicureans were the Stoics. To them, the most important thing in life was not “pleasure”, but “duty”. This developed into the theory that one should endure hardship and misfortune with courage. The chief Stoic was Zeno.
8.Art, Architecture, Sculpture and poetry • a. Art Greek art is a visual proof of Greek civiliza- tion. b. Architecture The most important temple is Parthenon. Greek architecture can be grouped into three types: the Doric style which is also called the masculine style; the Ionic style which is also called the feminine style; and a later style that is called the Corinthian.
c. Sculpture The earliest Greek sculptures were those of Gods. Stiff, lifeless---- the beauty of internal structure. Famous sculptures: i. Discus Thrower ii.Venus de Milo iii.Laocoon group d. Pottery The flourishing of the Greek pottery was a result of domestic needs, needs for foreign trade. Black-figure and red-figure paintings. 9. Impact a. Spirit of Innovation b. Supreme Achievement c. Lasting Effect
Roman Culture 1.Romans and Greeks The Romans had a lot in common with the Greeks. Both peoples had traditions rooted in the idea of the citizen-assembly, hostile to monarchy and to servility. Their regions were alike enough for most of their deities to be readily identified. Their languages worked in similar ways, and were ultimately related, both being members of Indo-European language family which stretches from Bangladesh to Iceland.
There was one big difference. The Romans built up a vast empire, the Greeks didn’t. 2.Roman History Pax Romana: The year 27B.C. divided the history of Rome into two periods: before then, Rome had been a republic; in that year, Octavius took supreme power as emperor with the title of Augustus. Two centuries later, the Roman Empire reached its greatest extent, encircling the Mediterranean, reaching Scotland in the north and spreading into Armenia and Mesopotamia in the east. The emperors
relied on a strong army--the famous Roman legions -– and an efficient bureaucracy to exert their rule, which was facilitated by a well-developed system of roads. Thus the Romans enjoyed a long period of peace lasting two hundred years, a remarkable phenomenon in history known as the Pax Romana. 3. Latin Literature a.Prose • Marcus Tullius Cicero (马库斯 . 塔利 .西塞罗） • Julius Caesar (朱利叶斯 .凯撒）
b. Poetry (物性论） • Lucretius (卢克莱修On the Nature of Things • Virgil (维吉尔） Aeneid (埃涅伊德） 4. Architecture, Painting and Sculpture • Architecture • The Pantheon • Pont du Gard • The Colosseum b. Painting c. Sculpture i. Constantine the Great (about AD 274-337), Roman emperor (306-37), the first Roman ruler to be converted to Christianity. He was the founder of Constantinople (present-day Istanbul), which remained the capital of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire until 1453.
ii. Spoils from the Temple in Jerusalem iii. She-wolf
Division Two: The Bible and Christianity • Jews—以前叫Hebrews，3800B.C.穿过中东沙漠，1300B.C.Moses带领Hebrews离开埃及，开始他们的Exodus，他在Sinai山定了ten commandments in the name of God，40年后Hebrews定居Pelestine, known as Canaan，Hebrew人的历史口头传送记入the old Testament, 6th century B.C.,他们在Babylon形成synagogue（忧太集会）来发扬他们的教义。Jesus Christ生活在第一个罗马帝国Augustus, Emperor Constantine 1于313年宣布基督教合法，Emperor Theodosius于392年宣布基督教为国教。
Hebrew人的历史口头传送记入the old Testament，旧约包含39本书，写了从1000B.C.---100A.D.的事情，最重要的前五本是Pentateuch，旧约主要由Hebrew写成，the New Testment主要是Greek的形式，包含14本书，最古老的Latin Bible叫Vulgate,在1382年被John Wycliff翻译成了英语，Greek Bible叫Septuagint
Division TwoThe Bible and Christianity • I. The Old Testament 《圣经》是妇孺皆知的基督教经典著作，分为《旧约全书》和《新约全书》两部。《旧约》共39卷，是基督教从古犹太教那里继承而来的。 所谓“约”意思是上帝与人定的契约，主要内容有四部分：其一，是关于上帝造世和人类始祖的神话，比如亚当和夏娃的故事，诺亚方舟的故事等；其二，是古犹太人的历史，讲述从希伯莱人定居巴勒斯坦（1200 B.C.）至公元一世纪犹太人的历史，例如《约书亚书》就是讲述约书亚率领以色列人攻占巴勒斯坦并把它分给各部落的经过；其三，是诗歌及其他形式的宗教文学作品，例如《约伯书》和《诗篇》；其四，是关于先知的预言和宗教、政治评论，比如《阿摩司书》、《耶利米书》和《但以理书》等。《旧约全书》大致在公元前五世纪至公元前二世纪陆续出现，并在公元一世纪末大致定型。
Focus In ♦Among all the religions by which people seek to worship, Christianity is by far the most influential in the West. ♦Both Judaism and Christianity originated in Palestine—the hub of migration and trade routes, which led to exchange of ideas over wide areas. ♦Some 3800 years ago the ancestors of the Jews– the Hebrews– wandered through the deserts of the Middle East.
♦About 1300 B.C., the Hebrews came to settle in Palestine, known as Canaan at that time, and formed small kingdoms. ♦The king of the Hebrews was handed down orally from one generation to another in the form of folktales and stories, which were recorded later in the Old Testament. ♦The Bible is a collection of religious writings comprising two parts: the Old Testament and the New Testament. ♦The Old Testament consists of 39 books, the oldest and most important of which are the first five books, called Pentateuch.
♦When the Hebrews left the desert and entered the mountainous Sinai, Moses climbed to the top of the mountain to receive God message from, which came to be known as Adam, Eve, the Ten Commandments. ♦Chronologically Amos is the earliest prophet in the Old Testament. ♦In Babylon in the 6th century B.C., the Hebrews, now known as Jews, formed synagogues to practise their religion.
Division Three: The Middle Ages • 中世纪开始于476年西罗马帝国的衰败5-11世纪a period in which classical, Hebrew and Gothic heritage merged 1054,教堂分裂为the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church反击Moslems，开始了CrusadesCharles Martel给士兵们estates known as fiefs in 732St. Thomas Aquinas(Scholasticism)写了 Summa Theologica，这本书sums up all the knowledge of medieval theology他认为feudal hierarchy(层次，等级) of society is God’s rule The power of feudal rulers is God’s will Pope is Christ’s Plenipotentiary
Division Three The Middle Ages • Manor and Church Introduction in Chinese 准确说本节的名称应为“封建制度与教会”。传统观念认为西欧封建制度始于“蛮族入侵”。5世纪末期，居住在罗马边境的蛮族不断侵入正在衰亡的罗马帝国，公元476年罗马皇帝被杀标志着西罗马帝国的灭亡。蛮族在西罗马帝国的废墟上建立了许多封建王国，“封建”在欧洲指“封土”，发源于法兰克王国的宫相查理.马特的改革。查理.马特把王国的土地分封给臣下，称“采邑”，以换取臣下的忠诚和军事义务，其实质是双方互相依赖的关系。在采邑的基础上形成了西欧生产的基本单位—庄园。而在此相互依赖的君臣关系上又形成骑士制度。罗马帝国之后，西欧再没有出现过统一的王权，惟一统一过西欧的是基督教会。
中世纪基督教会已发展成为组织完善，教义统一且对各国王权和人们生活都有影响的宗教：它在政治上高于各国君主；在文化上把宗教、哲学、艺术、文学等意识形态都统一于经院哲学，形成文化大一统；在军事上，它煽动各国骑士及普通教徒组成十字军，为从穆斯林手中夺回基督教的圣地而东征，且先后达九次之多；在日常生活中，人们的一生每一个环节，从出生到葬礼，都离不开教堂，可见教会的影响之深。中世纪基督教会已发展成为组织完善，教义统一且对各国王权和人们生活都有影响的宗教：它在政治上高于各国君主；在文化上把宗教、哲学、艺术、文学等意识形态都统一于经院哲学，形成文化大一统；在军事上，它煽动各国骑士及普通教徒组成十字军，为从穆斯林手中夺回基督教的圣地而东征，且先后达九次之多；在日常生活中，人们的一生每一个环节，从出生到葬礼，都离不开教堂，可见教会的影响之深。 Focus In In European history, the thousand-year period following the fall of Western Roman Empire in the fifth century is called the Middle Ages.
Between the fifth and eleventh centuries, western Europe was the scene of frequent wars and invasions. • TheMiddleAge is a period in which classical, Hebrew and Gothic heritages merged. • Feudalism in Europe was mainly a system of land holding– a system of holding land in exchange for military service. • In 732 Charles Martel, a Frankish ruler gave his soldiers estates known as fiefs as a reward for their service.
*The center of medieval life under feudalism was manor. *By the 12th century manor houses came to be called castles, which were made of stone and designed as fortresses. *As a knight, he was pledged to protect the weak, to fight for the church, to be loyal to his lord and to respect women of noble birth. These rules were known as code of chivalry, from which the western idea of good manners developed.
*In the medieval days knight trained for war by fighting each other in mock battles called tournaments. *After 1054, the Church was divided into the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. *The most important of all the leaders of Christian though was Augustine of Hippo who lived in North Africa in the 5th century. *Under feudalism, people of western Europe were mainly divided into three classes: clergy, lords and peasants.
*The people not only ruled Rome and parts of Italy as a king, he was also the head of all Christian churches in western Europe. *In the Medieval times the Church set up a church court—the Inquisition to stamp out so-called heresy. *One of the most important sacraments was holy communion, which was to remind people that Christ had died to redeem man *To express their religious feelings, many people in the Middle Ages went on journeys to sacred places where early Christian leaders had lived. The most important of all was Jerusalem.
*With a return attack against the Moslems, the Western Christians launched a series of holy wars called the Crusades. Interpretation 1.the Middle Ages In European society, the thousand-year period following the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the fifth century is called the Middle Ages. It is so called because it came between ancient times and modern times. During the Medieval times there was no central government to keep the order. The only organization that seemed to unite Europe was the Christian church. Christianity took the lead in politics, law, art, and learning for hundreds of years. It shaped people’s lives. That is why the Middle Ages is also called the
“Age of Faith”. 2. Manor The center of medieval life under feudalism was the manor. Manors were founded on the fiefs of the lords. Lords lived in a manor house and met with vassals, carried the laws and said their prayers. By the 12th century manor houses came to be called castles. 3.Code of Chivalry In the Middle Ages of western Europe, as a knight, he was pledged to protect the weak, to fight for the church, to be loyal to his lord and to respect women of noble birth. These rules were known as code of Chivalry.
4.Benedictine Rule It was founded by St. Benedict, a great monk in 529 A.D..The monks who followed Benedict’s rule promised to give up all their possession before entering the monastery. They wore simple clothes and ate certain simple foods. They could not marry and had to obey without question the orders of the abbot. They had to attend service seven times during the day and once at midnight. In addition they were expected to work five hours a day in the fields surrounding the monastery.
5.the Crusades In 1071 Palestine fell to the armies of the Turkish Moslem who attacked the Christians pilgrims, killing many of them and sold many others as slaves. News of this kind roused great indignation among Christian in western Europe. The result was a series of holy wars called the Crusades which went on about 200 years because all the soldiers going to Palestine wore a red cross on the tunics as a symbol of obedience to God. There were all together eight chief Crusades from 1096-1291.Although the Crusades
did not achieve their goal to regain the Holy land, they had an important effect on the future of both the East and the West. They brought the East into closer contact with the West. And they greatly influenced the history of Europe. II. Learning Science, Literature, Art and Architecture Introduction in Chinese 法兰克王国的查理曼大帝，不仅在政治上统一了西欧的大部分领土，建立了加洛林帝国，被教皇称为“罗马人的皇帝”；他本人还是“加洛林文艺复兴”的倡导者。查理深感当时文化与帝国声望不称，所以积极提倡文化教育，创办学校，并带头学习“七艺”，改变了
Focus In *Charlemagne, who temporarily restored order in western and central Europe, was perhaps the most important figure of the medieval period. *Charlemagne was crowned “Emperor of the Romans” by the people in 800. *The Summa Theologica by St. Thomas Aquinas forms an enormous system and sums up all the knowledge of medieval theology. *Roger Bacon was one of the earliest advocates of Scientific research and called for careful observation and experimentation.
*National epic” refers to the epic written in vernacular languages—that is , the languages of various national states that came into being in the Middle Ages. *Beowulf is an Anglo-Saxon epic, in alliterative verse, originating from the collective efforts of oral literature. *Dante Alighieri was the greatest poet of Italy, his masterpiece, The Divine Comedy, is one of the landmarks of world literature. *Chaucer was great English poet, The Canterbury Tales was his most popular work for their power of observation, piercing irony, sense of humour and warm humanity.
Charlemagne and Alfred the Great encouraged learning by setting up monastery schools. They copied various ancient books and translated the Latin works into the vernacularRoger Bacon and Experimental Science <Opus Maius> one of the earliest advocates of scientific research, called for careful observationDante(但丁) <The Divine Comedy> 神曲 one of the landmarks of world literatureChaucer <Canterbury Tales> first modern poet in English literature
Division Four: Renaissance and Reformation • 文艺复兴与宗教改革14th and 17th Century Starting in Florence and VeniceBoccaccio <Decameron> the greatest achievement of prose fiction in中世纪Petrarch <Canzoniers> Sonnet, father of modern poetry • 文艺复兴早期的艺术家：Giotto <Flight into Egypt><Betrayal of Judas> forerunner of renaissance Brunelleschi showed a systematic use of perspectiveDonatello <David> one of the first artists engaged in anatomyGiorgione <Sleeping Venus> made happy use of colour schemes to unify his pictures
意大利文艺复兴全盛时期的四位艺术家：Da Vinci <Last Supper> <Mona Lisa> Michelangelo <David><Sistine Chapel><Dying Slave><Moses> Raphael Known for his <Madonna(Virgin Mary)> Titian Oil color the most prolific of the great Venetian painters of Western World
Pre-Luther Religious ReformersJohn Wycliffe chief forerunner of the reformation, took up the translation of the Bible into English for the first time in 1382Jan Hus Czech Religious leader
John Calvin <Institutes of the Christian Religion> 基督教教义 one of the most influential theological works CalvinismRabelais <Cargantua and Pantagruel> 拉伯雷 <巨人传> french writerRonsard Pleiade七星诗社代表人 <Sonnets Pour Helene> 法国第一个近代抒情诗人Montaigne <Essays> 蒙田 散文集 French WriterCervantes <Don Quixote> father of modern European novel spain
Thomas More <Utopia> British writer Shakespeare作品包括<<哈姆雷特>><<麦克白>><<奥瑟罗>><<李尔王>><<威尼斯商人>><<第十二夜>><<皆大欢喜>><<罗密欧与朱丽叶>><<安东尼与克莉奥佩特拉>><<亨利四世>><<亨利五世>> crowned literature of England 代表欧洲文艺复兴的最高成就Copernicus: The father of modern astronomy 现代天文学之父Vesalius <Fabrica> marked the beginning of a new era in the study of anatomy (解剖学) founder of modern medicine
Aldus Manutius: foremost printer in Italy Machiavelli :Father of political science Vosari <Lives of the Artists>1492, Columbus发现了America1487,Dias发现了the cape of good hope1497,da Gama发现了the route to India round the Cape of Good Hope
Division Five: The Seventeenth Century • 17世纪Copernicus <The Revolution of the Heavenly Orbs> 天体运行论 Although he did not belong to the 17th century he was the forerunner of modern medicineKepler Kepler’s Law (the three laws of planetary motion)德 国 the three laws formed the basis of all modern planetary astronomy and led to Newton’s discovery of the laws of gravitationGalileo <Sidereus Nuncius (The Starry Messenger)>意大利 acceleration in dynamics, the law of inertia, the law of falling bodies动力加速度，惯性定律，落体定律Newton <Mathematical Priciples of Natural Philosophy>英国
Leibniz <New Essays Concerning Human Understanding> Distinguishes three levels of understanding: self-conscious(自我意识)conscious(意识)unconscious/subconscious (潜意识)他和牛顿都是caculus的创始人Milton Areopagitica，<Paradise lost> English revolutionBacon <The Advancement of Learning> <Essays> Knowledge is power 英国 反对deductive method，创立了inductive method 认为哲学应该与神学分开 • Hobbes <Leviathan>利维坦 Materialist (knowledge come from experience) Social Contract 英国 认为最好的统治方式是monarchy
Locke <Treatises of Civil Government> 政治论 Materialist views (ideas derived from sensation or from reflection) Social Contract 英国在英国革命中有两个领袖，Cromwell 和John MiltonCromwell the man of actionJohn Milton: the man of thought <Paradise Lost><Paradise Regained> <Agonistes> <Areopagiltica> 在英国文学史上ranks with Shakespear and Chaucer
Descartes笛卡尔 <Rules for the Direction of the Mind><Discourse on Method> Cartesian Doubt “I think therefore I am ” It is generally believed that modern philosophy begins with Bacon in England and Descartes in France
Corneille 高乃依<Le Cid>熙得 法国第一部古典主义悲剧，表现责任与爱情的冲突 • Racine <Andromaque><Phaedra> the greatest tragic dramatist of French neoclassical theatre 表现情感和理性的冲突Moliere <Tartuffe>达尔杜夫<Misanthrope>愤世嫉俗<L’Avare>吝啬鬼 the best representative dramatist of French Classical comedies很多科学器械在被发明：microscope, telescope, thermometer, barometer, pendulum1689，the Bill of Rights建立了the Parliament至高无上的权利法国最著名的建筑：Palace of Versailles Garden FrontEast Front of the Louvre英国最著名建筑：St. Paul’s Cathedral
Division Six : The Age of Enlightenment • 启蒙运动 the age of reason18th century intellectual movement starting from Francethe most important forerunners of the enlightenment were two 17th century Englishmen John Locke and Issac Newton.Locke’s materialist theory and Newton’s theory of gravitation • Major force of the enlightenment is French Philosophers
18世纪两大著名运动：1.The American War of Independence（1776）ended British colonial rule over the U.S.<The Declaration of Independence> 独立宣言2.The French Revolution（1789）ended the French Monarchy and the first French Republic was born in 1792<Declaration of the Rights of Man> 人权宣言