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1960’s SOUL MUSICThe passing of Civil Rights legislation in 1964 & 1965 was only the beginning of the social and cultural revolutions of the 1960sThe Civil Rights Movement had a hard time getting laws to be passed but would endure an even harder struggle to have them implemented.Backlash against the new laws, especially among Southern White government officials who outright refused to enact the new laws will lead to police actions, riots, shootings, student protest, etc…On April 4, 1968 Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated in Memphis at age 39.R&B music, which was mostly dominated by African American artist, would soon start to reflect a changes in the country from the sweet upbeat sounds of Motown to a more Dylan-esk approach of reflecting the African American community’s struggles in its sound.
1960’s SOUL MUSIC • Soul Music reflected the militant search for a new identity of African-Americans in a time of heightened violence towards them and supporters of the new civil rights laws. • The term “Soul” had been used & popularized in the 1950’s by Jazz Artist such as John Coltrane. • In the late 60’s the term reemerged in the African-American community in ghettos in Watts and Harlem. • They started to use the term to equate “soul” with the struggle to reassert African American dignity in the face of continued discrimination.
1960’s SOUL MUSIC • The term “Soul” was used not only to describe music but to emphasize other parts of African American culture, i.e. (Soul Food, Soul Brother, Soul Sister, etc… • Many new “Soul” Artist had their roots in the R&B of Motown or 1950’s era R&B such as that on Atlantic Records. • The new attitude of Soul Music spawned the re-emergence and sometimes even greater fame of established artist as well as spawning new chart topping artist as well.
JAMES BROWN • Had been involved with R&B long before the “Soul” music make over became known as “Soul Brother Number One” • Released his 1st record “Please, Please, Please” in 1956 with The Famous Flames. • By 1962, he had perfected his stunning high energy stage show, complete with legendary back up band and vocal group known as the James Brown Revue. • His 1962 album “Live At The Apollo” became legendary & reached #2 on the pop charts. • His live show consisted of incredible almost acrobatic dance moves, theatrics, jazz style improvisations, & pounding funk grooves of which he is said to be the originator. • He was also an innovator in his “raps” that would later be inspiration for Hip Hop groups decades later. • LISTENING JOURNAL – PAPAS GOT A BRAND NEW BAG
ATLANTIC & STAX RECORDS • Atlantic Records already had many R&B artist on their label from the 1950’s and early 1960’s before the new attitude of “Soul”. • Many of Atlantic’s artist enjoyed a resurgence of popularity in the “Soul” boom. • Atlantic also joined with a small label out of Memphis (Stax Records) in 1960. • Atlantic agreed to distribute Stax artist through their network of distributors. • Together, with existing artist such as Ray Charles and new artist playing the same gospel style R&B as Charles, Atlantic & Stax cornered the market on “Soul” music of the 60’s
ATLANTIC & STAX RECORDS • Stax gave their artist a distinctive sound by the use of their in house studio band BOOKER T AND THE MG’S • The band consisted of Booker T Jones – Keys, Al Jackson – Drums, Steve Cropper – guitar, and legendary bassist Donald “Duck” Dunn • The band, who in 1962 had an instrumental hit of their own, backed virtually every artist on the Stax label. • LISTENING JOURNAL • BOOKER T AND THE MGS “GREEN ONIONS”
WILSON PICKETT • Pickett's Atlantic career began with a self-produced single, "I'm Gonna Cry". • Looking to boost Pickett's chart chances, Atlantic next paired him with record producer Bert Berns and established songwriters Barry Mann and Cynthia Weil. With this team, Pickett recorded "Come Home Baby," a duet with singer Tami Lynn, but this single failed to chart. • Pickett's breakthrough came at Stax Records' recording studio in Memphis, where he recorded his third Atlantic single, "In the Midnight Hour" (1965).[ This song became Pickett's first big hit. • LISTENING JOURNAL • IN THE MIDNIGHT HOUR
OTIS REDDING • Redding was born and raised in Georgia. • At age 15, he left school to support his family by working with Little Richard's backing band, The Upsetters. • In 1958, he joined Johnny Jenkins's band, The Pinetoppers, and toured the Southern United States while serving as driver and musician. • An unscheduled appearance on a session in Memphis led to a turning point in his career. • He signed a contract with Stax Records and released his first single. • Redding died just three days after recording Dock of the Bay in a plane crash while on tour. • "(Sittin' On) The Dock of the Bay" was released in January 1968 and became Redding's only number-one single on the Billboard Hot 100, and the first posthumous number-one single in US chart history. • LISTENING JOURNAL • (Sittin' On) The Dock of the Bay
SAM & DAVE • The soul duo from Miami was discovered by Atlantic president Jerry Wexler who agreed to let the duo record for Stax. • Nicknamed "Double Dynamite", "The Sultans of Sweat", and "The Dynamic Duo" for their gritty, gospel-infused performances, Sam & Dave are considered one of the best live acts of the 1960s & were an influence on many future musicians live shows. • Sam and Dave's biggest hit and best remembered song, "Soul Man” was released in August 1967. • It was the number #1 song in the US in Nov 1967 and won them a Grammy Award in 1967 for "Best Performance - Rhythm & Blues Group”. • In the 1980s, Soul Man was covered by The Blues Brothers (John Belushi, Dan Aykroyd) whose act & stage show had many similarities to Sam & Dave, helped create a resurgence of popularity for soul and R&B • LISTENING JOURNAL – SOUL MAN
CROSSOVER SOUL ARTIST • The inner-city explosions during the late 1960’s (i.e. riots in such inner city areas of Detroit, Los Angeles, Chicago, etc..) made many Americans, especially those raised during the civil right era, more aware and interested in African American culture. • African American Soul Artist were becoming very popular in inner city and African American culture in general and had taken over the R&B charts but few crossed over to the pop charts as Motown artist had done earlier. • Their were two artist in particular that were able to bridge the now smaller but still definite divide between R&B and Pop music • They would gain great notoriety not just among R&B fans and in African American culture but in white middle America as well.
ARETHA FRANKLIN • Born in 1942 to prominent Baptist minister and activist C. L. Franklin, she began her career singing in her father's church at the age of ten and started recording just four years later. • She was first signed to Columbia Records in 1960 and had some limited success but was dissatisfied with the label and was heavily in debt to them. • Jerry Wexler of Atlantic signed her when her contract expired in 1966 and thought with her gospel background Atlantic would be a better fit. • Within a few she recorded and album for Atlantic that included the single “Respect” which had been a minor hit for Otis Redding 2 years before. • With Franklin, a Detroit native, the song took on new meaning with riots raging in her hometown and also found new meaning with The Women Liberation Movement fighting for many feminist issues in the 60s.
ARETHA FRANKLIN • “Respect” became a huge hit selling more than a million copies in just 10 months and reaching #2 on billboard. • Aretha would continue her crossover success with a string of million selling singles and albums that included (You Make Me Feel Like A) Natural Women, Chain of Fools, Think, etc…. • From her early success she would be given the name QUEEN OF SOUL a title that stick for her entire career. • LISTENING JOURNAL • RESPECT
THE JACKSON 5 • Born and raised in Gary, Indiana, the Jackson brothers were guided early in their careers by their father Joseph Jackson, a steel mill crane operator and former musician, and their mother Katherine Jackson. • Joseph saw potential and in 1964 helped Jackie, Tito, and Jermaine form The Jackson Brothers, including hometown friends Muffy Jones and Milford Tonna. • By the end of the following year, the group's younger brothers Marlon and Michael joined the instrumental band. • Showing extraordinary talent at a very young age, young Michael began demonstrating his dance moves and singing ability at the age of five. • As the brothers grew older they began to replace their friends on instruments and also hire professionals to fill needed spots.
THE JACKSON 5 • Evelyn Lahaie, a local talent agent, suggested to Joe to rename the group the Jackson 5 • After a contest win in Gary, the group began playing professional gigs in Indiana, Chicago and across the U.S. • Many of their early performance venues include were in a string of black clubs and venues collectively known as the "chitlin' circuit” which included several strip clubs. • The group were signed to a small label from Gary and began to record. • Sam & Dave were early admirers of the groups early recordings and helped the group secure a spot in the famous Amateur Night competition at the Apollo Theater in Harlem. • From here they caught the attention of Motown Records and after some hesitation on Barry Gordy’s part to sign such a young group he eventually brought them aboard.
THE JACKSON 5 • They initial success would be fueled by • 1. A fascination of Americans at the bands great talent at such young ages especially Michael who was only 11 in 1969 when the group premiered for Motown. • 2. Motown’s biggest star Diana Ross continual promotion of the group in the media. The Jackson 5’s first album was entitled Diana Ross Presents The Jackson 5. • The albums first single “I Want You Back” would hit number along with the group’s next 3 singles. • The Jackson 5 would re-establish Motown as one of the leaders in R&B and Soul music in the late 60’s and early 70’s. • LISTENING JOURNAL • I WANT YOU BACK
ACID ROCK – The Long Strange Trip BeginsIn the wake of the British Invasion, thousands of middle class, college educated youths clustered around the San Francisco Bay Area to demonstrate to the country, and eventually to the world, that love could replace war, sharing could replace greed, and community could supersede the individual.They strove for nothing less than a total transformation of America and they demanded it happen immediately.“We want the world, and we want it now” – Jim MorrisonA new hybrid of rock reflected and help propagate the new sub-culture.Fueled and named after a strange new drug (LSD) acid rock broadcast the word of Hippiedom from its epicenter in San Francisco to the world.Members of the movement made a conscious effort to withdraw from the 9 to 5 workaholic society and create an alternative community built on love.The motto of the counterculture popularized by Timothy Leary in 1967 was "Turn on, tune in, drop out”
THE BEATS & HIPPIES • The social upheaval of Hippiedom had its origins with The Beats who had originated in NYC in the 1950’s • In 1951 Jack Kerouac, a Columbia University football star, became a writer & “bummed” around the country with poet Neal Cassady. • Their adventures were chronicled in the 1957 critically acclaimed book On The Road which became the handbook of the beatnik culture. • The Beats formulated a countercultural philosophy based on tenets of Eastern religions such as Zen Buddhism. • Beat culture migrated to San Francisco out of NYC’s Greenwich Village, and both became centers of congregation of the beat generation.
THE BEATS & HIPPIES • The Beats sought to replace bourgeois traditional values with a fundamental change through cultural relativism – “we dig it all” • The experimented with drugs and with non-traditional sexual relationships – “free love” • In the late 1950’s influential poets, writers, etc.. Were singled out in the Anti-communism wave that swept America. • Hard liner FBI director J. Edgar Hoover had many of the Beats investigated and the movement lost momentum and went mostly underground. • The Beat culture would resurface in the mid 1960’s in both Greenwich and San Francisco.
THE BEATS REEMERGENCE IN NYC • Some of the Beats reappeared on the cultural scene among the social upheaval of the mid 1960’s to parent the psychedelic movement. • In Greenwich Village a group of beat poets which included the editor of F**k You: A Magazine of the Arts started a group called The Fugs. • The idea was to combine their poetry with Rock Music. • Another group that who performed many times with The Fugs and drew inspiration from the same Beat sources was The Velvet Underground. • The group started after songwriter Lou Reed meet musical prodigy John Cale at a party. • They combine Reed’s lyrical poetry with the musical ideas of Cale, formed a band, and began playing at clubs in the village
THE BEATS REEMERGENCE IN NYC • Pop Art Innovator Andy Warhol helped them achieve notoriety. • Warhol agreed to manage the band, gave them their name after author Michael Leigh’s S&M novel, and would showcase them at his Factory club and other exhibits and created a buzz among NYC’s art crowd. • Many of the band’s songs were centered around Reed’s lyrics which often explored the down and out themes of Beat fiction including drug addition and sex. • LISTENING JOURNAL • THE VELVET UNDERGROUND – SWEET JANE
THE HAIGHT-ASHBURY SCENE • The Beats also resurfaced in San Francisco to inspire the hippies as the were termed by San Francisco Examiner writer Michael Fallon in 1965. • The first hippie gatherings were near Fisherman’s Wharf and were a hodgepodge of hand holding dancers, free form performers of all kinds, etc… and appearances by a long haired, bearded Allen Ginsberg. • Ginsberg, friend of Kerouac & Cassady of On The Road fame, was one of the original beat poets to migrate to San Francisco in the 50’s and one the first to organize public performances by Beat Generation poets, musicians, etc… • Ginsberg began to make appearances at hippie events just a benefit concert for a local avant-garde theater group managed by local promoter Bill Graham, in which he flew in his NYC friends THE FUGS to play.
THE HAIGHT-ASHBURY SCENE • In January of 1966 Beat writer Ken Kesey and his band of free spirits know as The Merry Pranksters hosted the Trips Festival to 6600 people. • They enlisted local groups such as The Grateful Dead and Big Brother and The Holding Company, set up movies screens to project colors and shapes, had a man in a spacesuit doing free form poetry along with many others in costume, and spiked the punch with a new and legal drug LSD (a practice that would become known as the Kool-Aid Acid Test) • Beat High Priest Neal Cassady even began to show up at hippie events and the hippie culture began to explode among college aged baby boomers in San Francisco. • As word of the new counterculture spread droves of middle class college aged baby boomers would flock to the Haight-Ashbury district to experience hippie culture and its music in person. • The movement was also fueled by Timothy Leary, ex-Harvard professor and founder of The League for Spiritual Discovery, who contended that the LSD experience resulted in altered, introspective states that expanded individual consciousness & spirituality
THE GRATEFUL DEAD • Like a lot of other acid rock groups The Dead grew out of the folk scene. • Band foundering guitarist Jerry Garcia and Bob Weir came up through the San Francisco coffeehouse folk scene & joined with blues enthusiast Ron “Pig Pen” McKernan (Keyboards), Bill Kreutzmann (Drums), and classically trained trumpeter turned bassist Phil Lesh. • They formed “The Warlocks” in 1965 but later that year changed the name to The Grateful Dead. • Their style combined elements of rock, folk, bluegrass, blues, reggae, country, & improvisational jazz. • They are well known as being one of the founding groups in the Haight-Ashbury Acid Rock scene & also know as the pioneering Godfathers of the jam band world. • They group also became well known for their fans some of whom followed the band from concert to concert for 30 years, They are known as "Deadheads" and are known for their dedication to the band's music • Youtube – CBS INTERVIEW
BIG BROTHER & THE HOLDING COMPANY • formed in San Francisco in 1965 as part of the psychedelic music scene • Best known as the band that featured Janis Joplin as their lead singer. • Their 1968 album Cheap Thrills is considered one of the masterpieces of the psychedelic sound of San Francisco; it reached number one on the Billboard charts. • The album was initially named Sex, Dope and Cheap Thrills, but Columbia asked them to change it to just Cheap Thrills • At the end of the summer of 1968, just after appearing at the Palace of Fine Arts Festival in San Francisco, Joplin announced that she was leaving Big Brother in the fall of that year. The official reason given was her desire to go solo and form a soul music band. • LISTENING JOURNAL • PIECE OF MY HEART
JEFFERSON AIRPLANE • formed in San Francisco during the summer of 1965, emerging from the San Francisco folk music boom • Pioneers of the psychedelic movement, They were the 1st band from San Francisco to achieve mainstream commercial and critical success. • The group's founder was 23-year-old vocalist Marty Balin, who had established a minor career as a pop singer in the early 1960s • One of the groups best known members GRACE SLICK was actually a replacement of original member Signe Anderson who quit after the birth of her daughter. • The band performed at the 3 most famous American rock festivals of the 1960s—Monterey (1967), Woodstock (1969) and Altamont (1969) • Their 1967 record Surrealistic Pillow is regarded as one of the key recordings of the so-called Summer of Love and brought the group international recognition. Two chart hits from the album, "Somebody to Love" and "White Rabbit” • LISTENING JOURNAL - WHITE RABBIT
THE DOORS • As acid rock groups from San Francisco began to spread their message all of the country and the world, psychedelic inspired groups would begin to spring up from all parts of the country and world. • Formed in 1965 in LA, w/ vocalist Jim Morrison, keyboardist Ray Manzarek, drummer John Densmore and guitarist Robby Krieger, The Doors took its name from Aldous Huxley’s book The Doors of Perception, ] the title of which was a reference to a William Blake quotation: "If the doors of perception were cleansed every thing would appear to man as it is, infinite. • They were among the most controversial rock acts of the 1960s, due mostly to Morrison's wild, poetic lyrics and charismatic but unpredictable stage persona. • They were signed to Elektra Records in 1966. The 1967 release of The Doors was the first in a series of top ten albums in the US.
THE DOORS • On September 17, 1967, The Doors gave a memorable performance of "Light My Fire" on The Ed Sullivan Show. • According to Ray Manzarek, network executives asked that the word "higher" be removed in favor of "better." • The group initially agreed to this, but nonetheless performed the song in its original form, either because they had never intended to comply with the request, or Jim Morrison was nervous and forgot to make the change (Manzarek has given conflicting accounts). • Either way, "higher" was sung out on national TV, and a furious Ed Sullivan canceled another six shows that had been planned. • After the show's producer told the band they would "never do the Ed Sullivan show again", Jim Morrison reportedly replied: "Hey man. We just did the Sullivan Show. • LISTENING JOURNAL – LIGHT MY FIRE
PSYCHEDELIC LONDON • Sgt. Peppers Lonely Hearts Club Band • Inspired by the music of Bob Dylan and the psychedelic bands John Lennon began to drive The Beatles into a new direction. • Disillusioned by their own overwhelming success The Beatles quitting touring and started to explore their own musical possibilities. • The explored eastern philiosphy traveling to India and began to experiment themselves with LSD and other mind altering drugs. • Having the new freedom of not having to reproduce any of their recorded music live they began to experiment with great imput from their producer and often times called 5th Beatle George Martin • They pushed the boundaries of songwriting & recording technology of the time. • The had success with the album Rubber Soul previously but Sgt. Pepper was a break through on many levels- and proved that experimental studio concept albums could also be commercially successful. • Youtube – THE MAKING OF SGT. PEPPER
PSYCHEDELIC LONDON • PINK FLOYD • Founded in 1965, the group originally consisted of university students Roger Waters, Nick Mason, Richard Wright and Syd Barrett. • They first gained popularity performing in London's underground music scene during the late 1960s, and under Barrett's creative leadership they released two charting singles and a successful début album. • David Gilmour joined as a fifth member in December 1967, and Barrett left the band in April 1968 due to his deteriorating mental health. • After Barrett's departure, Waters became their primary songwriter. • With Waters, Mason, Wright and Gilmour, Pink Floyd would later achieved critical and commercial success with the concept albums The Dark Side of the Moon (1973), Wish You Were Here (1975), Animals (1977) and The Wall (1979). • LISTENING JOURNAL – FLAMING (LIVE on French TV 1968)
PSYCHEDELIC BLUES • Radicalized by a war in Vietnam and social unrest in The States, a militant youth movement became interested in a hard-edged rock. • Rather than the folk based, airy, acid rock, they began listening to the angry, slashing, piercing blues of British and American blues guitar heroes. • Fuel by the counterculture of the hippies and beats the new psychedelic blues sound was unlike any blues that had come before and also more popular than ever before.
PSYCHEDELIC BLUES • JIMI HENDRIX & The Experience • Despite a limited mainstream exposure of four years, he is widely considered to have been the greatest electric guitarist in the history of popular music, and one of the most important musicians of the 20th century. • Born in Seattle in 1942 he received his 1st guitar at age 15. • He enlisted in the Army in 1961 and jammed with other servicemen in their downtime. • After he had served only one year, Private Hendrix was honourably discharged on the basis of unsuitability in 1962. • After leaving the Army he moved to Nashville and began playing guitar professionally. • Although being a somewhat successful side man for years with R&B stars such as Little Richard, Wilson Pickett, etc..he did not strike out on his own until the late 60’s.
PSYCHEDELIC BLUES • JIMI HENDRIX & The Experience • He formed his first group under the name Jimmy James and the Blue Flames in NYC in 1966. • They did not have much more than minor club success but Linda Keith, the girlfriend of Rolling Stones guitarist Keith Richards, befriended Hendrix and recommended him to the Stones' manager. • Oldham passed but Chas Chandler, who was ending his tenure as bassist in the Animals and looking for talent to manage and produce. • Chandler then helped Hendrix form a new band, the Jimi Hendrix Experience, with guitarist-turned-bassist Noel Redding and drummer Mitch Mitchell, both English musicians. • Hendrix 1st success was in the UK opening for Eric Clapton’s new band and then charting on the UK charts with The Experiences 1st album,Are You Experienced. • He would later achieve success in America and was propelled to fame by his headlining appearance at Woodstock in 1969. • LISTENING JOURNAL - PURPLE HAZE (Live at Woodstock)
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