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The Age of Jackson

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  1. The Age of Jackson 1829 - 1837

  2. Presidential Election • John Quincy Adams is elected president over Jackson in 1824 • Jackson won the popular vote, but neither candidate received a majority in the electoral vote • Corrupt Bargain – Henry Clay influenced the House of Representatives to elect Adams and was appointed Clay Secretary of State

  3. Voting Requirements • Prior to 1828 majority of Americans were content with allowing the aristocracy to select the President. • Aristocracy – wealthy, educated, privileged class • By 1828 most states got rid of property qualifications for voting, therefore more people could vote

  4. Election of 1828 • Adams – characterized as an intellectual elitist • Jackson – characterized as a man of humble origins, “president for the common man” • In reality Jackson was a wealthy plantation owner

  5. President Jackson • Presidential veto - the right of a president to reject bills passed by the legislature. • Spoils system – to the victor belongs the spoils • Rewarded loyal friends from the campaign with government positions

  6. President Jackson • Indian Removal Act of 1830 • Jackson believed assimilation would not work and reservations required too many soldiers to prevent white settlement • Indian Removal Act – a series of treaties that moved Native American Tribes west

  7. Trail of Tears • November 1838 – Cherokee made an 800-mile trip west • Government officials stole their money • Outlaws stole their livestock • More than a quarter of the Cherokee died along the way

  8. Don’t Drink the Water

  9. Tariff of 1828 • Limited exports from Great Britain forcing the South to buy more expensive items from the North • John C. Calhoun – nullification • Questioned the legality of applying federal laws in sovereign states • U.S. was a compact of sovereign states which could nullify, or reject a law considered unconstitutional

  10. South Carolina Rebels • Tariff of 1832 caused South Carolina to threaten to secede or withdraw from the Union • Jackson threatened military action against South Carolina • Henry Clay proposed a bill that would gradually decrease the taxes of 10 years

  11. The National Bank • Viewed the bank as a “tool of the elite” or “privileged institution” • In 1832, Jackson vetoed the re-chartering of the bank • Jackson began removing government funds and placing them in state banks called “pet banks”

  12. Panic of 1837 • A direct result of the closing of the National Bank • “Pet banks” over-speculated and paper money became nearly worthless • People lost their savings, businesses went bankrupt and 1/3 of the population was out of work

  13. Jackson’s Legacy • Increase of respect and power for the common man • Voting rights expanded to all white male adult citizens, rather than only land owners in that group • Increased the strength of the Executive branch at the expense of the Legislative branch

  14. Conflicts in Jackson’s Administration • Tariff • Nullification • Indian • Second Bank • Panic of 1837 – Specie Circular

  15. Texas Saga • Austin • Houston • Alamo • San Jacinto • Sectionalism – Slavery – Annexation debate

  16. Politics • Old Hickory • Corrupt Bargain • Kitchen Cabinet • Spoils System • Universal Manhood Suffrage • Jacksonian Democrats