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Chapter 1. Introduction to Programming. Computer Hardware. CPU Memory Main or primary Secondary or auxiliary Input device(s) Output device(s). Computer Program.

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Chapter 1

Chapter 1

Introduction to Programming

Computer hardware
Computer Hardware

  • CPU

  • Memory

    • Main or primary

    • Secondary or auxiliary

  • Input device(s)

  • Output device(s)

Computer program
Computer Program

  • A list of instructions that direct the computer hardware to perform a particular data processing tack or solve a specific problem. The program is coded in a particular programming language such as C++, Fortran, and Visual Basic.

  • Software = a program or a collection of programs

Programming languages
Programming Languages

  • Low level machine language: 0’s and 1’s; the native language of the machine; machine-dependent.

  • Intermediate level assembler language: mnemonics; suggestive symbols or letters; Machine dependent; requires translator known as assembler.

  • High level procedural language: resembles English and/or standard notation of math; machine-independent (portable); requires translator known as compiler or interpreter.

Types of instructions
Types of Instructions

  • Input: e.g., cin in C++

  • Process: many operator including +, -, *, / to perform arithmetic and other types of processing.

  • Output: e.g., cout in C++

Types of computer software
Types of Computer Software

  • Systems software

    • Operating system: Windows, Unix

    • Compiler: C/C++ compiler

  • Applications software

    • Payroll program: usually custom-designed/developed.

    • Airline reservation software: usually custom-designed/developed; very expensive.

    • Word processor: perform generic word-processing tasks for general consumers.


  • Step-by-step instructions that lead to the solution of a problem.

  • Example: What is the algorithm that computes the average of three arbitrary values? What is the algorithm that adds integers from 1 to 100? (not unique! Some are better or more efficient that others. Efficient in what sense?)

Algorithms continued
Algorithms continued

  • Tools to help develop/specify/visualize an algorithm

    • Flowchart: a set of symbols (p9); less popular today but helpful to beginners to visualize the steps.

    • Pseudocode: informal English statements; easier to convert to a program using a structured programming language such as C or Fortran.

Computer problem solving steps
Computer Problem Solving Steps

  • Understand/formulate/specify the problem

  • Develop the algorithm, which is independent of computer languages.

  • Convert the algorithm to a program (Computer language must be chosen)

  • Test/debug (steps 1 thru 4 may be iterative)

  • Deliver

How to run or execute test a c program
How to run or execute (test) a C++ program

  • Need a C++ translator known as a compiler, which convert C++ source program (or source code) to machine language program (or object code).

  • There are several popular C/C++ compilers available commercially or in the public domain: Borland/Turbo C/C++, Microsoft Visual C/C++, gcc compiler, etc.

Turbo c c program development environment
Turbo C/C++ program development environment

  • The Integrated Development Environment or IDE

    • Editor

    • Preprocessor and compiler

    • Debugger

    • Others

A simple c program
A simple C++ program

  • The program displays/prints a greeting message “Hello World”

  • Steps 1 and 2 are quite clear, we go straight to steps 3, namely code the program in C++

A simple c program continued
A simple C++ program continued

#include <iostream.h>

int main ( )


cout << “Hello World!” << endl;

return 0;


Another simple program what does it do
Another simple program. What does it do?

#include <iostream.h>

int main ( )


double x, y, z, avg;

cout << “Enter 3 values: “;

cin >> x >> y >> z;

avg = ( x + y + z ) / 3;

cout << “The average of three arbitrary values is “

<< avg;

return 0;


C language elements tokens
C++ language elements (tokens)

  • Keywords: 62 reserved word including return; each has special meaning and must not be misspelled.

  • Identifier: names chosen by the programmer; it is usually used to name or identify a memory location (known as a variable) or a function.

  • Operators: specifies operations

  • Constants: may be numeric or non-numeric

  • Punctuation symbols such as ;.

Tokenize the above programs
Tokenize the above programs

In the two programs

  • What are the keywords?

  • What are the identifiers?

  • What are the punctuators?

  • What are the constants?

  • What are the operators?


  • What does #include <iostream.h> mean?

  • What are the rest of the lines in the program for?

  • Why return 0?

  • What are cin and cout?

  • What is >>?

  • What is <<?

  • Are the ordering of lines (instructions) in the program important?

  • Can one use u, v, and w in place of x, y, and z?