Foreign Policy Test #7
What is foreign policy? • Stands and actions that a nation takes in regard to its relationship with other nations.
3 Branches of Government & Foreign Policy • The Legislature • Senate ratifies(confirms) treaties with other countries by a 2/3 vote • The Executive • President is Commander-in-Chief of the military • President’s advisor, the Secretary of State, helps manage relations with foreign countries • President appoints ambassadors to foreign countries • The Judiciary • Supreme Court - power to interpret treaties
How do we achieve our foreign policy goals? • Diplomatic action • Negotiations • Treaties • Open embassy in a nation – office of an ambassador • Use of Peace Corps or other aid groups to promote friendly relations Retrieved from http://diplomacy.state.gov/discoverdiplomacy/explorer/places/170172.htm
Map indicating states and territories and their diplomatic relations with the U.S.* Blue represents the United States. * Green represents nations with which the US has diplomatic relations. * Red represents nations with which the US does not have diplomatic relations. * Yellow represents nations that are disputed areas.
How do we achieve our foreign policy goals? • Economic action • Embargos • Trade sanctions/barriers • Open up trade relations to friendly countries
Where does the U.S. get its oil? Source: Energy Information Administration Credit: Nelson Hsu / NPR
How do we achieve our foreign policy goals? Nations that have had a no fly zone in the past: Iraq, Bosnia, Libya • Military action • Building & maintaining military bases to protect us and our allies • Blockades • No-fly zones • Sending troops, drones, bombs, etc. Retrieved from http://wiltoday.wordpress.com/2013/08/27/military-force-syria/
How do we achieve our foreign policy goals? Dark blue - boycotted the 1980 Games Blue - withdrew for other reasons Sea green - not invited by IOC Green - competed under IOC flag or by their own athletes Retrieved from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1980_Olympic_Games_boycott.svg; authored by Sannita • Cultural action • Student exchange program • Boycott the Olympics or other event in a country
How do we achieve our foreign policy goals? • Political action • Created Dept. of Homeland Security (after 9/11) to deal with threats of terrorism • Recognize the legitimacy or illegitimacy of a country’s government Retrieved from http://www.livgov.com/health/ep/Pages/ntas.aspx
Jigsaw – Foreign Relations News Articles • Read your news article then answer the following questions: • What countries does the article discuss? • What problems or issues are being discussed? • What type of foreign policy actions are being taken in this article? • Based on what you’ve read, do you believe foreign relations between the countries are good or bad? Why?
Start of U.S. Foreign Policy 1st official diplomat – Ben Franklin – negotiated Treaty of Alliance with France in 1778 1st cabinet dept. Washington created – Dept. of State – Thomas Jefferson as Sec. of State
Isolationism • 1st U.S. foreign policy • Began with Washington’s Farewell Address • Not entering into military agreements with foreign countries • Oceans provided natural defenses • We fought the War of 1812, the Mexican War, & the Spanish-American War without joining alliances or fighting in Europe • Continued until WWI Retrieved from http://historywithwoods.wikispaces.com/1933-1945+World+War+II
The great rule of conduct for us in regard to foreign nations is in extending our commercial relations, to have with them as little political connection as possible. So far as we have already formed engagements, let them be fulfilled with perfect good faith. Here let us stop. Europe has a set of primary interests which to us have none; or a very remote relation. Hence she must be engaged in frequent controversies, the causes of which are essentially foreign to our concerns. Hence, therefore, it must be unwise in us to implicate ourselves by artificial ties in the ordinary vicissitudes of her politics, or the ordinary combinations and collisions of her friendships or enmities. —Washington, George. "Washington's Farewell Address 1796." Yale Law School Avalon Project, 2008. Web. 12 Sept 2013.
Monroe Doctrine - 1823 Retrieved from http://www.kidsnewsroom.org/resources/sol/tx/g08h03.html Statement to Europe to stay out of Western Hemisphere Stated we would see European intervention in Latin America as an act of aggression & war
Manifest Destiny Louisiana Purchase - 1804 Adams-Onis Treaty 1819 – Spain gave us Florida Mexican Cession - Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 Oregon Treaty of 1846 – negotiation with Britain set 49’ parallel as boundary Gadsden Purchase of 1853 – New Mexico & Arizona “Seward’s Folly” – Alaska Purchase from Russia 1867
Roosevelt Corollary Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2012/09/what-does-teddy-roosevelts-big-stick-line-really-mean-anyway/262579/ and http://www.navsource.org/archives/01/05e.htm • Next logical step to the Monroe Doctrine • U.S. would get involved in Latin American countries if they couldn’t govern themselves • “Big Stick Policy” – Roosevelt’s policy of using force if necessary to advance American interest • Building of the Panama Canal • Great White Fleet
Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy To benefit U.S. economy increased bank & industrial investments there Sent U.S. troops to guard American investments in unstable Latin American countries "Foreign Affairs - William Howard Taft - Policy, War, Domestic." Presidents: A Reference History. Web. 21 Dec. 2011. <http://www.presidentprofiles.com/Grant-Eisenhower/William-Howard-Taft-Foreign-affairs.html>.
Good Neighbor Policy FDR 1933 – stopped U.S. military involvement in Latin American countries WPA flier retrieved from http://www.wolfsonian.org/explore/collections/strengthen-good-neighbor-policy-understanding-our-southern-neighbors Map retrieved from http://www.unc.edu/courses/2009fall/hist/140/006/Outlines/14.LatinAmerica.htm
World War Retrieved from http://www.teachpeace.com/teachpeacemoment9.htm and http://kids.britannica.com/comptons/art-100673/A-US-battleship-sinks-during-the-Japanese-attack-on-Pearl • WWI – U.S. enters on side of Britain & her allies • Lusitania • Unrestricted German submarine warfare • Zimmerman Telegram • WWII – U.S. enters on side of Britain & her allies • Attack on Pearl Harbor
National Security Council Created in 1947 by Pres. Truman VP, Sec. of State, Sec. of the Treasury, Sec. of Defense, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (military officers), & CIA Director Retrieved from http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2006/07/images/20060705_d-0085-2-515h.html
The Cold War • Containment - U.S. policy of stopping the spread of communism • U.S. becomes a superpower after WWII & begins period dominance in the world • Collective Security – keep international peace & order • Deterrence – discourage or prevent attack • Massive retaliation • Nuclear arms race • Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) Military alliance originally created to protect against the threat of the Soviet Union & spread of communism Retrieved from http://nationalsecurityzone.org/natog8/
United Nations Created after WWII to help prevent future wars and conflict Peaceful solutions to global problems UN Security Council Universal Declaration of Human Rights
The War on Terror After 9/11 attacks – planes crashed into World Trade Center in NYC & Pentagon The new war Terrorist groups – Al Qaeda & Taliban George W. Bush “axis of evil” – Iran, Iraq, & North Korea Retrieved from http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2011/09/pictures/110908-about-911-september-9-11-twin-world-trade-center-towers-indelible/
War in Afghanistan U.S. military & NATO allies invaded Afghanistan to take the Taliban out The battle to stabilize Afghanistan’s new government is still going on today Retrieved from http://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/asia/af.htm http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/12/world/asia/12afghan.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
Iraq War (2003-2011) Iraq’s alleged possession of WMDs Iraqi President Saddam Hussein of supporting Al Qaeda Iraqi government human rights abuses Effort to spread democracy around the world Retrieved from http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/iraq_pol-2009.jpg http://worldpoliticsblog.wordpress.com/2011/06/12/the-troubled-road-to-democracy/
Nuclear Weapons • America gained nuclear weapons in 1945, the Soviet Union in 1949, Britain in 1952, France in 1960, and China in 1964 • Pakistan & India tested nuclear weapons in 1998 • North Korea tested nukes in 2006 • Cold War – U.S. & Soviet Union nuclear proliferation
The New Power: China • Since 1972, the U.S. has had policy of engagement with China • Trade • Pollution • Tension • Human rights issues
Retrieved from http://adventuresaroundasia.wordpress.com/2013/06/03/real-facts-on-beijing-pollution/
Regional Conflicts Israel/Palestine - Israel was created after WWII as a country for the Jewish people – Palestinians (Muslim Arabs) also live in the area Since 1948 - Several wars & a cycle of violence Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/in_depth/world/2001/israel_and_palestinians/key_maps/