Christianity Judaism Islam http://www.art.com/asp/sp-asp/_/pd--11897575/A_Crowd_of_Muslims_Surround_the_Kabah_in_the_Haram_Mosque_in_Mecca.htm
CHRISTIANITY Christianity started in 30 AD in Palestine. The founder of Christianity was Jesus. It began in the Roman empire and spread throughout Europe. In the days of early Christianity, Christians were persecuted in the Roman empire because they did not believe in the Romans’ many gods. Ultimately, Christianity became the official religion of the Roman empire. As the belief of Christianity spread, the followers grew in size. Today there are two billion followers. The United States is the largest country with Christian followers. There is something different about art in Christianity than the beliefs of Judaism and Islam. In Christian art they draw people, God, and animals. The symbols of the Christian religion are the cross, dove, fish, and light. The basic beliefs of Christianity are: • Christians love neighbors like they love themselves. • Christianity is based on the teaching of Jesus. • Beliefs in one God as a trinity; Father, Son and Holy Spirit as one God. • The Bible is the sacred text. The Old and New Testaments are used. • Christians believe in a resurrected Jesus, in forgiveness of sins, and in everlasting life. • The Christian afterlife is resurrection of the body and soul in a everlasting life in heaven or hell. Many holidays are connected to religion. Christianity celebrates Christmas as the day of Jesus’ birth. Lent, the forty days before Easter, is a period of fasting and repentance. Easter is a Christian holiday celebrating the day of the resurrection of Jesus. The traditions and rituals of Christianity are: • Worship on Sunday in a church or a chapel. • Baptism is a rituals using water symbolizing the cleansing of sins. • Celebrations of life events like birth, death and marriage.
Judaism • Before Christianity, there was the belief of Judaism. It started in Mesopotamia in 1300 BC. The founder of Judaism is Abraham. He is also the founder of monotheism. The spread of Judaism went through Egypt and on to Jerusalem. In 70 AD the Roman empire destroyed Jerusalem. The Jewish people settled in the Mediterranean countries and southwest Asia. Then some of the Jews moved into Europe and the United States. For thousands of years the Jewish people were persecuted. In their history, they suffered exile and were forced into slavery. Today many people follow this belief. There are fourteen million followers in mostly Israel, Europe, and the United States. • Unlike the symbols of Christianity, Jewish art does not include pictures of people, God, or animals. The symbols of Judaism include: the star of David, the menorah, and the scales of justice. • The main beliefs of Judaism are: • The sacred text is the Tanakh (which includes the Old Testament of the Bible.) • The Jewish afterlife varies and is either, Gan Eden, Gehinnom, nonexistence, or reincarnation. • Jews believe in monotheism. • The most important holidays in the year are Hanukkah, Rosh Hasahanah, Yom Kippur, and Passover. Hanukkah celebrates that God made a day of oil last for eight days. Hanukkah includes lighting of the candles on the menorah and prayers. Rosh Hasahanah is the Jewish New Year. Yom Kippur is the day of Atonement. Passover is an eight day observance celebrating the freedom and exodus of the Jewish slaves from Egypt. • The Jewish people’s traditions and rituals are: • They worship on Saturday which is called they call sabbathin in a temple or a synagogue. • The Jewish people celebrate life events such as, birth, death, weddings, and coming of age. • At the age 12 or 13 girls and boys have a choice to have a bar/bat mitzvah. • Many Jews only eat kosher food, following a strict dietary code.
Islam www.blessingscornucopia.com www.payer.de/islam/islam.html Islam began in 622 AD in Mecca, Saudia Arabia. Muhammad was the founder of the Islam religion. He was a Meccian merchant who went to a cave to pray, and an angel told him he was the messenger of God. Islam expanded from Mecca to Egypt, Syria, Palestine, Iraq, and parts of Iran. As it moved on, it moved to North America, Cyprus, Iran, India, Pakistan, also Africa, Spain, southeast and central Asia. Islam now has 1.3 million followers today, mostly in the Mideast and Northern Africa. Early Islamic people were persecuted. The Christian crusades were military attacks waged against the Muslims. Like Judaism, Muslims (same as Islam) do not have animals, people, or God in their artwork. The artwork of Islam includes geometric shapes and patterns, nature scenes, and calligraphy. Their symbols are the crescent moon and stars and the minaret. The main beliefs of Islam are: • Monotheism • Like Christianity, they have the same belief of an everlasting afterlife. • The Qur’an is the Muslim sacred text. The major holidays celebrated include Ramadan, Eid at Fitr, Hajj, and Eid al-Adha. Ramadan is a time of worship and contemplation, fasting and a time to strengthen community ties. Eid at Fitr is a festival of breaking the fast. Hajj is a week long pilgramage to Mecca. Eid al-Adha is a festival of sacrifice. Worship in the Islam religion is performed in a mosque. They pray five times daily. They believe in fasting and zakat which is giving charity to the poor and needy.
What do they have in common? Christianity Muslim Judaism • Art includes drawings of God, people and animals. • Worship day is Sunday. • An everlasting afterlife including some form of paradise or heaven. • Celebrate life events. • Monotheistic • All have a sacred text. • Fasting as a part of some holidays. • Early followers were persecuted. • Views about the afterlife vary from it being nonexistent to reincarnation. • Specific dietary laws followed by the strictest members. • Worship on Saturday. • Art does not include pictures of people, God or animals. • Pray 5 times daily. • Holidays include a pilgramage to Mecca.
Bibliography Religion Facts, by Anonymous, www.religionfacts.org Wikipedia, The Free Encylopedia, Wikimedia Foundation, www.wikipedia.org An Introduction to the Study of World Religions, by Sara Wenner, www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/religion/ Web page cites for images are indicated under the applicable image. Other pictures are clipart from Microsoft Power Point software.