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Christianity

Christianity

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Christianity

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  1. Christianity

  2. Early Beginnings • Starts as a cult of Judaism for 40 – 60 years • Keep monotheistic belief • Keep mythology • Does not keep doctrine • Maintains Hellenistic prinicples • Body/Soul Dichotomy • Immortality • Gnosis

  3. Scriptures • New Testament : • Gospels • Mark • Luke Synoptic Gospels • Matthew • John • Acts (of the Apostles) • Epistles • Revelation (of St. John)

  4. Unaccepted Texts • Non-canonical texts • Gospel of Mary Magdalene • Gospel of Thomas • Infant gospel of thomas • Gospel of james • Gospel of judah • Others ?

  5. Jesus of Nazareth • Jesus as Christ • Messiah / Anointed One • Miraculous Birth • Virgin mother • Bethlehem • Preacher • Teaches in parables • Reinterprets the Law

  6. The “Passion Story” • Jesus goes to Jerusalem for Passover • Eucharist • Jesus is arrested and tried • Roman rule / Jewish Law (?) • Jesus is crucified and entombed • Good Friday • Family/friends return – Tomb is Empty • Easter Sunday

  7. The “Passion Story” • Appears to disciples • Not recognized • Pentecost • Birth of the Church • Glossilalia • Disciples now Apostles

  8. Paul of Tarsus • Strict Pharisee • Converted • Converted Gentiles • Debate amongst apostles • Extremely successful • Competing theologies

  9. Christian Theology • Humanity is separated from God because of Original Sin • Human beings cannot keep the Law • Redemption / reconnection through Christ • Give of Grace (Agape) • Justified through BELIEF • Body / Soul Dichotomy • Greek influence • Parousia

  10. Earliest Christians • Early Converts • Women • Poor • New World Coming • Apocalyptic • Jewish / Christian separation – 80 c.e.

  11. Early Heresies • Gnosticism • Christ delivers gnosis • Return to the Supreme Being • Bypass Demiurge / Creator God • Rule of Faith Needed • Confirm authority of texts • Many texts rejected • Recently discovered

  12. Early Church Structure • Bishop • Head of the Church for a large city • Disburses the Eucharist • Prebyter (Early Priest) • Heads smaller churces • Disburses the Eucharist • Deacon • Layman

  13. Christian Persecution • Christians do not participate in state rituals • Martyred in public • Emperors encouraged Christian persecution • Decius • Valerian • Diocletian • “Great Persecution”

  14. Constantine and the Early Church • Legalized Christian Worship • Edict of Milan 313 • Bishop to the Bishops • Set holidays • Religious sites • Set by Helena • Settled dispute on Christology

  15. Christology – The Nature of Christ • Arianism – Bishop Arius of Alexandria • Christ – Logos of God – is confused with God. • Polytheism - Gnostic influence • Need to settle on the NATURE of Christ • Nicene Councils (325 / 381) • Christ is of the same essence as God • Monotheism • Holy Spirit is added for the Trinity • Council of Chalcedon (451) • Perfect union of human and divine, without confusion or division.

  16. Sin and Salvation • St. Augustine of Hippo • Defined sin as a choice of the individual • All aspects of creation are from God • Therefore good • Uti / Frui

  17. East – West Schism Eastern and Western Churches split • Filioque Clause • Dispute since Nicene Council • Papal Authority • Patriarchs refuse to accept Rome’s declaration • Political Concerns • East – Islamic Empire • West – Germanic Invaders • Excommunications – 1054

  18. Medieval Christianity • Charlemagne crowned as the Holy Roman Emperor • Dec. 25, 800 • Unites all of Europe under Christianity • Christendom

  19. Medieval Contributions • Purgatory • Limbo • Penance • 3 Elements • Eucharist • Transubstantiation

  20. Corruptions • Simony • Pluralism • Indulgences • Crusades

  21. Scholasticism • Synthesize Faith and Reason • St. Thomas Aquinas • Summa Theologica • Nature and Revelation leads to union with God • Same principles apply to sin

  22. Protestant Reformation • Martin Luther • 95 Theses • Main Protestant principles • Sola Scriptura • Justification by Grace through Faith ALONE • No penance / indulgences • Every person is his/her own priest

  23. Dramatic Growth • Supported by German princes • Reclaimed territories • Improvements in the printing press • Bible in the vernacular • New Interpretations • Calvinism • Predestination

  24. Catholic Reformation • Council of Trent • Reaffirmed the Catholic position on: • Sacraments (7) • Tradition / Scripture equal sources of truth • Justification by Grace through Faith PLUS Good works for Satisfaction • Society of Jesus (Jesuits) • Ignatius of Loyla • Conversions

  25. Questions of the Enlightenment • Scientific Advances • Bible not a source of knowledge for the natural world • Deism • “Clockmaker” God • Biblical Criticism • Revelation is not a source of truth • Philosophers seek non-religious truth.

  26. Secularization • Religion loses control of some aspects of society • Government • School • Business • Religion is seen as personal and private

  27. Recent Developments • Great Awakenings • 2 Social Movements • 1730 – 1750 • 1800 – 1830 • Literal interpretation of the Bible • Liberation Theology • God will help the oppressed

  28. Vatican Councils • Vatican I: 1869 • Pope Pius IX • Limited infallibility • Faith and Morals • Vatican II: 1962 – 1965 • Pope John XXIII • Pope Paul IV • Changes in services • Vernacular • More local control

  29. Protestant Denominations • Wide variety of denominations • Liberal to conservative • Renewal of Sola Scriptura • Focus on the individual’s connection to God

  30. Eastern Orthodox • Focuses on the unity between human and divine in worship • Icons and veneration of saints prevelant • Some theological differences from the Latin Church

  31. Study for the Exam!! Review Sheet is Online