The Old Testament known as the Hebrew Bible • The New Testament • Has 27 books written after Jesus' earthly mission • Gospels: Jesus' life and teachings based on biblical texts in the first four books of this testament • Three Synoptic Gospels are Mathew, Mark, and Luke • Referring to them that they can be “seen together”, have similar views of Jesus, but are organized differently • The fourth Gospel and book, The Gospel of John • Focuses on Jesus' Messiahship and inflect Greek influences on light and darkness • More mystical and devotional in nature The Christian Bible
Its earliest development took place under the leadership of the Twelve Apostles, Saint Peter and Paul the Apostle, followed by the early bishops, whom Christians considered the successors of the Apostles • 27 February 380, Emperor Theodosius I enacted a law establishing Christianity as the official religion of the Roman Empire • Since the 4th century, Christianity has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization. Early History of Christianity
The son of God and the Messiah (Christ) • God incarnate and “true God and true man” • Was conceived by the Holy Spirit and born from the Virgin Mary • Anointed by God as savior of humanity • The death and resurrection of Jesus are usually considered the most important events in Christian Theology because they demonstrate that Jesus has power over life and death and therefore has the authority and power to give people eternal life Jesus Christ
Christians consider the resurrection of Jesus to be the cornerstone of their faith and the most important event in human history • The death and resurrection of Jesus are two core events on which much of Christian doctrine and theology is based • According to the New Testament Jesus was crucified, died a physical death, was buried within a tomb, and rose from the dead three days later • Jesus' death and resurrection are commemorated by Christians in all worship services, with special emphasis during Holy Week which includes Good Friday and Easter Sunday. • Christian churches accept and teach the New Testament account of the resurrection of Jesus with very few exceptions Death/Resurrection of Jesus Christ
Wedding Rites Funeral Rites • Expression of worship, reflecting joy, celebration, community, respect, dignity and love • The Bible gives no specific pattern or order of service to define exactly what should be included • Christian wedding ceremony should be a testimony of your lives before God, demonstrating your Christian witness • Every Christian is free to choose his/her place of burial or repository for ashes • Christian symbols should be used appropriately at the rite of Christian funerals • Ex. Fresh Flowers, Flag, Holy Water etc. • The liturgy may take place at several different locations including the funeral home, the church, the cemetery and/or chapel Rituals
Birth Rites Rites of Passage • Baptism known as ‘Christening’ • The parents and godparents make a promise to bring the child up in the Christian faith and the godparents repeat vows on behalf of the baby • the priest takes water from the font and pours it over the baby's head three times, baptising the baby in the name of the Father, and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit • It comes from Jewish roots – the Bat Mitzvah – meaning “daughter of the Commandment”. • A period of instructing the child in her faith and traditions, culminating in a ceremony that recognizes entrance into adulthood Rituals Cont.
There is only one God • God is three in one or a Trinity consisting of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit • God is omniscient or “knows all things” • God is omnipotent or “all powerful” • There will be a final judgment • Hell is punishment and eternal • Jesus' death was a substitutionary sacrifice. He died and paid the price for our sins, so that we might live. • Those who accept Jesus Christ, after they die, will live for eternity with Him • The Bible is the "inspired" or "God-breathed," Word of God • Jesus died for the sins of each and every person in the world 10 Basic Unique Beliefs
Attending Church on Sundays • Prayers and teachings of the sermon • Meditation • Small group prayers also known as Bible study groups • Bible readings • Communication • Music • Even some formal ceremonies Worship Practices
4 BC- Birth of Jesus Christ • 30 AD- Crucifixion of Jesus • 380- Christianity made the official religion of the Roman Empire • 395- The Roman Empire separates • 1861- Presbyterians divide over the issue of slavery Timeline
Decline and fall of the Roman Empire • Catholicism spread among the Germanic peoples, the Celtic and Slavic peoples, the Hungarians, the Scandinavians, and the Baltic peoples • 11th century onward, older cathedral schools developed into universities • From the 7th to the 13th century, the Christian Church underwent gradual change, resulting in a schism dividing it into a the Roman Catholic Church, and the Greek Orthodox Church Middle Ages History
Catholic Church Orthodox Church • The Bishop of Rome, as its highest authority in matters of faith, morality and Church governance • The Catholic Church is the largest church representing over half of all Christians and one sixth of the world’s population • Eastern Orthodoxy is the second largest single denomination in Christianity, with over 200 million adherents • Eastern Orthodox Church also traces its heritage to the foundation of Christianity through Apostolic succession and has an episcopal structure Churches of Christianity
Presbyterian Other • The oldest Protestant groups separated from the Catholic Church in the 16th century Protestant Reformation • Estimates of the total number of Protestants are very uncertain, because of the difficulty in determining which denominations should be placed in these categories • basic Protestant tenants identify themselves simply as "Christians" or "born-again” Christians • The Second Great Awakening • Saw themselves as restoring the original church of Jesus Christ rather than reforming one of the existing churches • Second Great Awakening have some superficial similarities, their doctrine and practices vary significantly Churches of Christianity Cont.
The Reformation (European Christian reform movement), resulted in the splintering of the Western Christendom into several Christian denominations • Protestantism, which rejected the primacy of the pope, the role of tradition, the seven sacraments, and other doctrines and practices • The Roman Catholic Church engaged in a substantial process of reform and renewal, known as the Counter-Reformation or Catholic Reform Church Reformation
Christians believe in the life after death. • Those who believe in Jesus will be forgiven and saved, whereas, the unbelievers would face eternal punishment • Christians reject Satan • Those who do not accept Jesus Christ, after they die, they will live in hell for eternity • Sin separates those from God Punishment
They believe sacrifice can bring about new kinship ties, purity, and eternal life • Christian churches are concerned with how humanity can be saved from a universal condition of sin and death • The Catholic Church teaches that salvation does not occur without faithfulness on the part of Christians; converts must live in accordance with principles of love and must be baptized • Lutherans and other Protestants teach that salvation is a gift that comes to an individual by God's grace, sometimes defined as "unmerited favor Salvation