AKS 30: Ancient Mesopotamia & Ancient Egypt - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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AKS 30: Ancient Mesopotamia & Ancient Egypt

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  1. AKS 30:Ancient Mesopotamia & Ancient Egypt Chapters 1.3, 2, 3, 4, & 7

  2. History of the World in 7 minutes • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4pnmZalx9YY

  3. 30a Summarize the impact of the Neolithic Revolution • WARM-UP:

  4. Comparison:Old Stone Age vs. New Stone Age • Old Stone Age (Paleolithic) • Began: 2.5 million B.C. • Ended: 8,000 B.C. • Achievement(s): Made stone chopping tools

  5. Comparison:Old Stone Age vs. New Stone AgeMore About the Paleolithic Age: • People of Old Stone Age were nomads & hunter-gatherers (wandered from place to place) • Used stone, bone, & wood to craft special tools to kill game, catch fish, & pry plants loose

  6. Comparison:Old Stone Age vs. New Stone Age • New Stone Age (Neolithic) • Began: 8,000 B.C. • Ended: 3,000 B.C. • Achievement(s): Polished stone tools, made pottery, grew crops, raised animals

  7. The Neolithic RevolutionFactors that led to Agricultural Revolution: • Discoved that scattered seeds grew into crops • Rising temperatures • Rich supply of grain • Food demands of small population boom

  8. Impact of the Neolithic Revolution • Farming = steady source of food

  9. Impact of the Neolithic RevolutionDomestication of Animals • Tamed & herded animals into human-made enclosures – constant source of food

  10. Impact of the Neolithic RevolutionSlash-and-Burn Farming • Farmers cleared land, burned debris • Ash used to fertilize soil • Planted crops on land they cleared

  11. Neolithic RevolutionVillage & Town Life Begins • Economic Changes • Irrigation systems • Food surpluses • Prosperous economy • New skills & crafts • Expanded trade between villages

  12. Neolithic RevolutionVillage & Town Life Begin • Social Changes • Complex social relationships • Development of social classes • More organized religion

  13. Neolithic RevolutionCities Emerge & Grow • Economic Changes • Expansion of trade over a wider area • Specialized workers • Varied crafts • Advanced technology

  14. Neolithic RevolutionCities Emerge & Grow • Social Changes • Soaring populations • Emergence of gov’t to maintain order • System of writing to keep records, taxes, & laws • Formal religious institutions

  15. The Beginning of Civilization • What is a civilization? • Complex culture with SWAC2 • When did it first occur? • during the Bronze Age • Bronze Age (3,000 B.C.- 1650 B.C.)

  16. Civilizations AriseThe Five Marks of Civilization • Specialized Workers • Need grew as cities grew • Began to become experts in a particular type of work • Examples: • Gov’t official • Scribe • Priest • Potter • Metalworker or other artisan

  17. Civilizations AriseThe Five Marks of Civilization • Record Keeping • As institutions became more complex, people needed to be able to keep track of taxes, grain storage, & passage of time • Examples: • Cuneiform (Sumerians) • Hieroglyphics (Egyptians) • Phoenician alphabet

  18. Civilizations AriseThe Five Marks of Civilization • Advanced Technology • New tools & equipment needed to make life easier for growing groups of people • They are able to work more efficiently • Occurred in both farming & work of artisans • Examples: • Ox-drawn plows • Irrigation systems • Potter’s wheel • Invention of bronze

  19. Civilizations AriseThe Five Marks of Civilization • Cities • Center for trade for a large area • Provided markets for local farmers, merchants, & traders • Examples: • Ur, Babylon (Sumer) • Memphis, Thebes (Egypt) • Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro (Indus Valley) • Luoyang, Yangzhou (China)

  20. Civilizations AriseThe Five Marks of Civilization • Complex Institutions • Growing cities required a system of gov’t & established laws • Maintains order and organization • Examples: • Gov’t • Economy • Religion • Polytheists • Hebrews (monotheist) • Zoroaster

  21. Monotheism • Definition: • Belief in a single god • Hebrews believed in one god b/c: • Believed Abraham had made a covenant with God, where Abraham and his descendants promised to obey God in return for God’s protection

  22. Zoroaster • Persian prophet • Taught that earth is a battleground between good & evil& each person is supposed to take part in this struggle • Taught belief in one god, Ahura Mazda, who was the creator and will one day judge everyone according to how well he/she fought the battle for good • Traces of Zoroastrianism-such as the concept of Satan and a belief in angels- can be found in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam

  23. Where Did the First Civilizations Occur? • The first civilizations occurred the four main areas • Nile River Valley (Africa) • Fertile Crescent (Mesopotamia) • Along the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers • Indus River Valley (India) • Chang Jiang (Yangtze) and Huang He River Valleys (China)

  24. 30b Explain how geographic features and cultural diffusion affected the development of ancient Mesopotamia and ancient Egyptian River Valley civilizations • WARM-UP:

  25. Geographic FeaturesMesopotamia –The Fertile Crescent • Curved shape of land including lands facing Mediterranean Sea & plain between Tigris & Euphrates Rivers

  26. Geographic FeaturesMesopotamia – The Fertile Crescent • Flooded yearly (unpredictable) leaving behind a thick mud called silt • Farmers planted crops in rich soil • Resulted in plentiful harvests  allowed villages to grow

  27. Geographic Features Environmental Challenges for Sumerians • Challenge: • Unpredictable floodingwith a period of little to no rain. Land sometimes became almost a desert.

  28. Geographic Features Environmental Challenges for Sumerians • Solution: • Dug irrigation ditchesthat carried river water to their fields • Led to production of surplus crops

  29. Geographic Features Environmental Challenges for Sumerians • Challenge: • No natural barriers for protection (defenseless)

  30. Geographic Features Environmental Challenges for Sumerians • Solution: • Built city walls with mud bricks

  31. Geographic Features Environmental Challenges for Sumerians • Challenge: • Limited natural resources • Building materials scarce

  32. Geographic Features Environmental Challenges for Sumerians • Solution: • Traded their grain, cloth, & crafted tools with people of mtns & deserts • In exchange, they received raw materials like stone, wood, & metal • Cultural Diffusion: process by which a new idea or product spreads from one culture to another

  33. Warm Up (Gft) • How did the Neolithic Revolution set the stage for early civilizations? • Why did the Neolithic Revolution occur? • What is SWAC2? Why is each letter important? • Name the rivers and locations of the four river valley civilizations. • What is a Semitic language in use today? • Who invented the wheel, plow, cuneiform, and was the first civilization?

  34. Warm Up • What is the Neolithic Revolution? Neolithic Age? • How did people live before the Neolithic Revolution? • What is SWAC2? Why is each letter important? • Name the rivers and locations of the four river valley civilizations.

  35. Geographic Features Ancient Egypt – Nile River • Benefits: • Predictable yearly flooding allowed farming settlements to grow • Worshiped the river as a god b/c of its abundance

  36. Geographic Features Ancient Egypt – Nile River • Problems: • Low waters in Nile resulted in famine b/c of poor crops • Flooding = destroyed homes & crops

  37. Geographic Features Ancient Egypt – Deserts on Either Side of Nile River • Benefits: • Shut out invaders • Spared Egypt constant warfare

  38. Geographic Features Ancient Egypt – Deserts on Either Side of Nile River • Problems: • Acted as barriers between Egypt & other lands • Forced Egyptians to live on a very small portion of the land • Reduced interactions with other peoples (limited cultural diffusion)

  39. 30c Analyze the development of Mesopotamian societies including religious, cultural, economic, and political facets of society including Hammurabi’s Law Code • WARM-UP:

  40. Development of MesopotamiaCulture • Art & Architecture • Literature – The Epic of Gilgamesh • Ziggurats • Arches • Columns • Ramps

  41. Development of MesopotamiaCulture • Science & Technology • Cuneiform (See AKS 30g) • Irrigation • Bronze • Wheel • Sail • Plow • Minutes, hours, seconds, 12 month year

  42. Development of MesopotamiaReligion • Polytheistic • Belief in more than one god • Ziggurat(Sumerian temple) was the center of city life • Priests conducted rituals & sacrifices to city gods • Served as storage for grains, fabrics, gems • Trading center • Bank

  43. Development of MesopotamiaPolitics • Rulers • Military leaders that shared power with priests • Priests prayed to gods, controlled irrigation systems • Ruler controlled standing armies

  44. Development of MesopotamiaClass structure • King • Nobles (royal family members) and Priests (younger relatives of rulers) • Nobles were family members and lesser military leaders • Priest intervened with the gods to ensure good fortune for their communities • Free commoners • Peasant cultivators in the countryside on land owned by their families. Also builders, craftsmen, or professionals • Dependent Clients • Agricultural laborers who worked on land owned by others and owed a portion of their production to the landowner • Slaves • POWs, criminals, and heavily indebted individuals who sold themselves to satisfy the debt. Paid taxes

  45. Development of MesopotamiaClass structure • Gender • Men • Adult men have authority over public and private affairs • Decided the work that family members would perform • Arranged marriages • Head of household and makes all major family decisions • Women • Allowed to work ( high priestess, scribes, advisors, bankers, brewers, bakers, tavern keepers, textiles • Wore veils to discourage male attention • Legally inferior to men

  46. Warm UP • How was the geography of Egypt and Mesopotamia different? • What is SWAC2? What is the significance of each letter? • Which Mesopotamian empire came up with the first written law code? • What is the name of the code? • What is it based on? • Who did it apply to? • What is a Ziggurat? • How did the Assyrians preserve learning? • How did the Persians rule their empire?