How did Geography Impact Greece? • Ancient Greece was not united under one government due to the mountainous terrain, and the many islands that make up this nation today. • The Greeks had independent CITY-STATES, each had their own governments, military, economy. • All Greeks worshipped the same Mythology, but each city-state had it’s own patron God(Goddess) • They gathered at Mt. Olympus to compete
What were some of theGreek Governments? • 1. Monarchy – kings, hereditary oldest male • 2. Aristocracy – government controlled by wealthy land owners • 3. Oligarchy – government controlled by wealthy businessmen • 4. Direct Democracy – citizens vote for laws, Athens • 5. Totalitarianism – government regulates all aspects of life (military) Sparta
What were the important Greek achievements • A. Philosophy – • What is Philosophy? • A set of Beliefs that impact not only our thoughts, but our actions as well. • Most words that end in “ISM” are Philosophies • Socrates is considered the Father of Western Philosophy • Socrates – “The unexamined life is not worth living”
Made the Socratic Method famous • What is the Socratic Method? • The use of Constant questioning to uncover the Truth. • Plato • Emphasized the use of reason • Student of Socrates • Rejected Athenian Democracy – instead believed in rule of Philosopher King
Philosophy • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GmHAdgDkcCw
The Republic • It deals with the central problem of how to live a good life; (a) what is justice in the State, or what would an ideal State be like, and (b) what is a just individual? • Plato's ideal state is an aristocracy, a Greek word which means "rule by the best."
Plato divides human beings up based on their innate intelligence, strength, and courage. • Those who are not overly bright, or strong, or brave, are suited to various productive professions: farming, smithing, building, etc. • Those who are somewhat bright, strong, and especially courageous are suited to defensive and policing professions. • Those who are extraordinarily intelligent, virtuous, and brave, are suited to run the state itself
Aristotle • He became the tutor to the young prince of Macedonia, Alexander the Great. • Aristotle believed that the world could be understood through the detailed observation • This is called inductive reasoning: observing as many examples as possible and then try and formulate an explanation as to why or how it is.
Inductive reasoning is the foundation of the Western scientific method. • It is based on Skepticism, questioning. • Science and Medicine • Pythagoras, developed a formula to calculate the relationship between the sides of a righttriangle • Aristarchus, a Greek astronomer, discovered that the earth rotated on its axis, and revolvedaroundthesun • Eratosthenes discovered that the earth was round, and accurately calculated its circumference
Greek innovation • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JqGTCgL3tcw&feature=related
Wonders of Greece • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jjo5AV6_sHU&feature=related
Euclid wrote a book called The Elements, which is the basis for moderngeometry • Archimedes tried to use science for more practical matters, he showed how the use of a lever and pulleysystem could lift just about any weight • Hippocrates, a 5th century BC physician, studied the causes of illnesses and experimented with various cures. He is also credited with creating a set of ethicalstandards for doctors called the HippocraticOath.
Literature • Greeks produced many plays, and perfected the comedy and tragedy. • Humanism was a major contribution passed on to future people, especially during the Renaissance. • Books and plays about human feelings and emotions were very popular.
Alexander the Great and Hellenism • What is Hellenism? • A combination of Persian, Greek and Egyptian culture. • Alexander integrated non-Greeks into his army and administration, leading some scholars to credit him with a “policy of fusion.” • He encouraged marriage between Greeks and non-Greeks, and practiced it himself. • Alexander did more than control territory; • he actively exported Greek culture: politics, law, literature, philosophy, religion, science, math and art. • Was responsible for the Golden Age of Islam
Rome fought a series of three wars over the course of 122 years. By the end of the third Punic war Rome had won the control of Spain, North Africa, and the islands of Sardinia and Sicily. • Over the next two centuries Roman armies conquered the remainder of the • Mediterranean world. The Roman Empire extended from Spain to the Euphrates River, and from England to North Africa • One of the greatest generals in the Roman Empire was Julius Caesar. He came to power as a result of a civil war against another general, Pompey. Caesar came to power in 49 B.C. and was assassinated by Roman senators in 44 B.C.
Punic Wars • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ARF2r3Ol80Y
Characteristics of Roman Government • The government began as a monarchy that lasted until 500 B.C. when a republic was established, • and it ended with an Emperor when Julius Caesar took over. • Two social classes in Rome dominated the Republic. • The classes were the Patricians, upper class, and the Plebeians, the commoners. • Roman gov’t changed when the Plebeians demanded a voice in society. • When the Republic began they created a government with separation of powers and checks and balances • The Twelve Tables These Tables were the written laws (codified) of the Republic. • These laws allowed the Plebeians greater freedom and power in Roman society. These laws were the basis of roman society for over one thousand years.
Roman Achievements • One of the greatest achievements, besides Government, was Architecture. • Roman’s discovered the secret of Cement, as a result the city of Rome was second to none in the ancient world. • http://www.viddler.com/explore/PhilHawley/videos/3/ • In addition to the city itself, Roman’s built Aqueducts, and roads throughout their city and Empire (the dome, and the use of arches were also inspired by the Romans.)
Aqueducts were used throughout the Roman Empire to carry clean water to the many towns. This was one of the most important inventions in ancient Rome. Below is a picture of a Roman aqueduct. This aqueduct is still standing today.
Engineering an Empire • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lyISwYZxCbA&feature=related
MP • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qc7HmhrgTuQ&feature=fvw • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XbI-fDzUJXI&feature=channel • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Erthun0Pauc&feature=related
Bread and Circuses • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EWMCSnVe2iA • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jpoKdPNM10M
Gladiator • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pb6vVDcqtyE&feature=related • Building the coliseum • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EO1NQy4oyJs&feature=fvw Aqueducts http://science.discovery.com/videos/what-the-ancients-knew-i-roman-aqueducts.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oTMrfyAt6Mo
Pax Romana: The Golden Age of Rome • In 27 B.C. Octavian proclaimed himself the new Emperor of Rome and took the title Augustus Caesar. • For the next two centuries Rome enjoyed relative peace and prosperity. The results of this Golden Age were numerous; • a. Roman Law: The concepts of innocent until proven guilty and the idea of evidence being presented at trials were developed. Citizenship was extended to all people in the Empire. • b.Roman Commerce: The expression “all roads lead to Rome” was more than a saying. Paved roads throughout the empire helped the distribution of goods throughout the Empire. These roads helped stimulate trade and diffusion, the Romans traded with the Chinese during this era. (Han Dynasty & Silk Road)