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Chapter 1. Foundations of Communication . Noise. Signal. Received Signal. Linear Model Communication as Action. Transmitter. Receiver. Info Source. Channel. Destination. Who says what in what channel to whom with what effect?. Noise. Interaction Model Communication as Message Exchange.

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chapter 1

Chapter 1

Foundations of Communication

linear model communication as action

Noise

Signal

Received Signal

Linear ModelCommunication as Action

Transmitter

Receiver

Info Source

Channel

Destination

Who says what in what channel to whom with what effect?

interaction model communication as message exchange

Noise

Interaction ModelCommunication as Message Exchange

Context

Context

Source

Channel

Receiver

Message

Message

Context

Context

Feedback

Adds two key elements (feedback and context)…still fails to recognize simultaneous process of sending/receiving that occurs.

transaction model communication as message creation

Noise

Noise

Noise

Transaction ModelCommunication as Message Creation

Context

Context

Source/Receiver

Source/Receiver

Message/Feedback

Context

Context

We constantly react to what others say…not just exchanging meaning, also creating meaning

8 propositions about interpersonal communication
8 Propositions about Interpersonal Communication
  • Communication has both verbal & nonverbal components
  • You cannot not communicate
  • Communication expresses both content & relationship
  • Meanings are in people
8 propositions about interpersonal communication continued
8 Propositions about Interpersonal Communication (continued)
  • Communication is irreversible
  • Communication is a neutral tool
  • Communication is a learned skill
  • Communication takes place in physical & psychological contexts
slide7

Source

Intentional

Unintentional

Intentional

1

2

Receiver

Unintentional

3

4

chapter 2

Chapter 2

So What’s Stopping You?

Communication Anxiety

why are some people apprehensive about communicating
Why are some people apprehensive about communicating?
  • Inadequate positive reinforcement
  • Poor skill development
  • Inadequate or poor models
understanding stage fright
Understanding Stage Fright
  • Fear of evaluation
  • Lack of preparation
  • Feel conspicuous
  • Rigid rules
  • Negative self-talk
managing your fear of communicating
Managing your Fear of Communicating
  • Think!

Severe Communication Apprehension

  • Systematic desensitization
  • Cognitive therapy
chapter 4

Chapter 4

Listening

what is listening
What is Listening?
  • Receiving
  • Understanding
  • Interpreting
  • Discriminating
  • Remembering
  • Evaluating
  • Responding
who is the listener
Who is the Listener?
  • Listener’s purposes
  • Listener’s knowledge & interest levels
  • Listener’s listening skills
  • Listener’s attitudes
becoming a better listener
Becoming a Better Listener
  • Adapt to speaker’s delivery
  • Listen with your eyes as well as your ears
  • Monitor your emotional reactions
  • Avoid jumping to conclusions
  • Listen for major ideas
  • Identify your listening goals
  • Take notes
  • Become an active listener
  • Be a selfish listener
      • What’s in it for me?
      • How can I use this information?
chapter 3

Chapter 3

Ethics & Professional Communication

professional communication ethics
Professional Communication Ethics
  • Take responsibility
  • Respect & tolerate others
  • Speak with commitment & will
scholastic dishonesty
Scholastic Dishonesty
  • Cheating
  • Plagiarism
chapter 5

Chapter 5

Interviewing for Information Gathering

what is an informational interview
What is an Informational Interview?
  • Exchange between two parties
  • Strategic purpose or goal
  • Asking & answering of questions
preparing for an interview
Preparing for an Interview
  • Decide on a purpose
  • Choose a structure
  • Generate topics
  • Construct a schedule of questions
      • Primary & secondary questions
      • Probes
  • Examine your questions for language problems
      • Ambiguous & complex phrasing
      • Irrelevant & offensive content
      • Leading questions
      • Speedy & guessing questions
  • Prepare your opening and closing
chapter 6

Chapter 6

Working with Groups & Teams

teams
Teams…
  • When should you use a group or team?
  • Successful teams
      • Themes & identity
      • Enthusiasm and energy
      • Event-driven history
      • Personal commitment
      • Optimism
      • Performance results
      • Goals & roles (p. 180)
unsuccessful teams
Unsuccessful Teams
  • Unclear goals
  • Changing objectives that are poorly communicated
  • Poor leadership
  • Lack of mutual accountability
  • Having the wrong people on the team
  • Not prioritizing the team
  • Misunderstanding of roles
  • Too much unhealthy conflict
  • Bad process management (how team is organized & run)
  • No rewards for teamwork
leading teams
Leading Teams
  • Assigned vs. emergent leadership
  • Task vs. social leadership
  • Participative leadership
  • Democratic leadership
  • Laissez-faire leaders
  • Authoritative leaders
building consensus
Building Consensus
  • Share similar goals
  • Have a common enemy
  • Spend time together on both task and non-task activities
  • Work at respecting and trusting one another
  • Have a series of successful experiences together
downside of consensus
Downside of Consensus
  • Social loafing
  • Groupthink
effective meetings
Effective Meetings
  • Keep the meeting structured
  • Build consensus
  • Understand the stages of meetings
      • Orientation
      • Conflict
      • Resolution
      • Reinforcement
  • Follow-through on commitments
  • Be a good team member
chapter 7

Chapter 7

Leadership & Decision Making in Groups

what is leadership
What is Leadership?

Leadership: is a dynamic, interactive process whereby one person (or group) influences another person (or persons) to move toward a particular goal or objective.

what is leadership1
What is Leadership?
  • Process
  • Dynamic
  • Interactive
  • Influence
  • Purpose

*Are leaders born or made?

*Is leadership science or art?

perspectives on leadership
Perspectives on Leadership
  • Blake & Mouton’s leadership grid
          • Concern for people vs. concern for production
  • Transactional vs. transformational leadership
  • Situational leadership
          • Directing
          • Coaching
          • Supporting
          • Delegating
  • Contingency theory
          • Least-preferred coworker scale
blake mouton s leadership grid

Concern for People

Concern for Production

Blake & Mouton’s Leadership Grid

1,9 Country Club

9,9 Team

5,5 Organizational

9,1 Authority- Obedience

1,1 Impoverished

situational leadership theory hersey blanchard
Follower Development Levels

F1: Enthusiastic Beginner

Low competence, high commitment

F2: Disillusioned Learner

Some competence, low commitment

F3: Reluctant Contributor

High competence, variable commitment

F4: Peak Performer

High competence, high commitment

Situational Leadership Theory (Hersey & Blanchard)

Leadership Styles

L1: Telling/directing

Low supportive, high directive

L2: Selling/coaching

High supportive, high directive

L3: Participating/supporting

High supportive, low directive

L4: Delegating

Low supportive, low directive

slide36

Selling

Follower Commitment

Delegating

Participating

Follower Competence

F1

F4

Telling

F3

Leadership Direction

F2

Leadership Support

slide37

Contingency Leadership Theory (Fiedler)

  • Effective leadership is a balance of relationships, power, & task structure
  • Based on the Least-Preferred Co-worker Scale
      • Leader-Member Relations: extent of loyalty, support, and quality of relationships
      • Leader’s Position Power: extent to which leader has authority; controls rewards & punishments
      • Task Structure: extent to which tasks are standardized & controlled
chapter 9

Chapter 9

Analyzing your Audience

know your audience
Know your Audience

A – Analysis

U – Understanding

D – Demographics

I – Interest

E – Environment

N – Needs

C – Customized

E – Expectations

audience needs
Audience Needs

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Self Actualization Needs

Self-Esteem Needs

Social Needs

Safety Needs

Physiological Needs

personality types
Personality Types
  • Intuitors

- Conceptual

  • Thinkers

- Analytical

  • Feelers

- Relational

  • Sensors

- Practical

chapter 15

Chapter 15

Speaking to Inform

purpose of informative speaking
Purpose of Informative Speaking
  • Convey understanding
  • Educate
  • Transmit information through personal channels
types of informative speeches
Types of Informative Speeches
  • Objects
  • Processes
  • Events
  • Concepts
choosing a topic
Choosing a Topic
  • Not over listeners’ heads
  • Not too personal
  • Intriguing
  • Manageable
  • Has substance
types of evidence
Types of Evidence
  • Narrative or objective
  • Factual
  • Specific
  • Statistics
  • Testimony
chapter 10

Chapter 10

Organizing a Successful Presentation

defining the purpose of your presentation
Defining the Purpose of your Presentation

Topic

General Purpose

Specific Purpose

Thesis

organizing your ideas
Organizing your Ideas
  • Chronological
  • Spatial
  • Topical
  • Problem-solution
  • Cause-effect
connecting your ideas
Connecting your Ideas
  • Previews
  • Summaries
  • Transitions
  • Signposts
introduction
Introduction
  • Attention grabber
  • Credibility
  • Thesis statement
  • Preview main ideas
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Intent to conclude
  • Summary of main ideas
  • No new information
chapter 14

Chapter 14

Delivering Public Presentations

verbal delivery
Verbal Delivery
  • Volume
  • Rate
  • Articulation
  • Inflection/tone
  • Rhythm
  • Flow
nonverbal delivery
Nonverbal Delivery
  • Eye contact
  • Hand gestures
  • Facial expressions
  • Posture
  • Clothing
  • Presence
delivery styles
Delivery Styles
  • Memorized
  • Manuscript
  • Extemporaneous
  • Impromptu
chapter 8

Chapter 8

The Importance of Language

what is language
What is Language?
  • Socially shared system
  • Arbitrary
  • Symbolic
  • Governed by rules
  • Combined
speech act theory
Speech Act Theory

Language is a functional tool…words mean because they do things

language reality
Language & Reality

Language reflects reality

vs.

Language creates reality

using language effectively
Using Language Effectively
  • Appropriateness
  • Rhetorical sensitivity
  • Precision
  • Concise
  • Clear
  • Specific
  • Creativity

- Metaphor - Simile - Repetition - Hyperbole

chapter 12

Chapter 12

Using Visual Aids

purpose of visual aids
Purpose of Visual Aids

Visual representation of your ideas

types of visual aids
Objects

Models

People

Drawings

Photographs

Maps

Graphs

Charts

Video Tapes

CD ROMs/DVDs

Audio Tapes/CDs

Types of Visual Aids
guidelines for visual aids
Guidelines for Visual Aids
  • Visual aids enhance your presentation, not a substitute for your presentation
  • Easy to see / read / understand
  • Simple
  • Adapt to audience
  • Look professional
more guidelines
More Guidelines…
  • Rehearse
  • Maintain eye contact
  • Explain the visual aid
  • Use handouts effectively
  • Prepare backups for technology failure
  • Timing…should coincide with ideas
chapter 13

Chapter 13

Making your Point with PowerPoint

powerpoint
PowerPoint
  • Present information incrementally…allow audience to process
  • Simplicity (animation, slide design, etc.)
  • Consistency

Narrating PowerPoint slides is not a speech!

chapter 16

Chapter 16

Speaking to Persuade

levels of influence
Levels of Influence
  • Attitudes
  • Beliefs
  • Values
  • Behaviors

The goal is change

important distinctions
Important Distinctions
  • Attitude: learned predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably toward something; a like/dislike; easiest to change

Al Gore would have been a pretty good president

  • Belief: the degree of confidence with which something is perceived true or false

The best way to stimulate the economy is to cut taxes

  • Value: an enduring conception of right/wrong, good/bad; most difficult to changeAbortion and the death penalty are both morally wrong
determining your persuasive purpose
Determining your Persuasive Purpose

Persuasion happens when something is in question

  • Questions of fact
  • Questions of value
  • Questions of policy
how do we motivate listeners
How do we Motivate Listeners?

Classical Appeals

  • Logos – Appeals to audience reason
  • Pathos – Appeals to audience emotion
  • Ethos – Appeals to speaker character
how do we motivate listeners1
How do we Motivate Listeners?

Positive motivation: statement made by a speaker suggesting that good things will happen if the speaker’s advice is heeded

how do we motivate listeners2
How do we Motivate Listeners?

Negative Motivation(fear appeals)

Research shows that…

  • Fear appeals involving loved ones are more effective than appeals involving the audience members themselves
  • The greater your credibility, the more likely your fear appeal will be successful
  • You must convince your audience that the threat is real and could actually happen
persuasive strategies
Persuasive Strategies
  • Cognitive Dissonance (mental inconsistency)
      • Discredit the source
      • Reject or deny the inconsistency
      • Seek new information
      • Stop listening
      • Alter values, beliefs, attitudes, or behavior causing the dissonance

Potential responses

persuasive strategies1
Persuasive Strategies
  • Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
      • Attention
      • Need
      • Satisfaction
      • Visualization
      • Action
persuasive strategies2
Persuasive Strategies
  • Implicit Intent

Don’t be explicit with your intent to persuade (i.e., “Today I’m going to persuade you to…)

- Introduction

- Audience type

chapter 11

Chapter 11

Supporting your Claims (Evidence)

types of evidence1
Types of Evidence
  • Explanations
  • Comparisons
  • Divisions
  • Interpretations
  • Descriptions
  • Testimony
types of evidence definitions
Types of Evidence - Definitions
  • Etymological
  • Categorical
  • Oppositional
  • Denotative
  • Connotative
types of evidence statistics
Types of Evidence - Statistics
  • Descriptive
  • Inferential
types of evidence examples
Types of Evidence - Examples
  • Hypothetical
  • Case study
  • Narrative
  • Personal experience
types of reasoning
Types of Reasoning
  • Inductive: reaching a general conclusion based on specific examples, facts, statistics and opinions
  • Reasoning by Analogy: A comparison to explain how someone/something will respond
  • Deductive Reasoning: reaching a specific fact or opinion based on general information
  • Causal Reasoning: Relate two events saying that one caused the other
fallacies in reasoning
Fallacies in Reasoning
  • Hasty generalization
  • Genetic fallacy
  • Appeal to ignorance
  • Bandwagon (popular appeal)
  • Appeal to false authority
  • Sequential fallacy
  • Begging the question
  • Ad hominen (personal attack)
  • Circular reasoning
  • Misuse of statistics
  • Either/or fallacy
chapter 17

Chapter 17

Professional Argumentation

argumentation defined
Argumentation Defined

Argumentation: the mechanics of influence and the structure of reason

4 theories of argument
4 Theories of Argument

(1) Aristotle’s enthymeme - Partial syllogism

- Omits the secondary premise

4 theories of argument1
4 Theories of Argument

(2) Toulmin’s Components of Argument

Warrant

Evidence

Claim

Reservation

4 theories of argument2
4 Theories of Argument

(3) Perelman’s Technique of Argument

- Practical vs. formal reasoning

- How to reason about values

- Association

- Dislocation

4 theories of argument3
4 Theories of Argument

(4) Fisher’s Narrative Paradigm

Narrative Rationality:

- Coherence

- Fidelity

chapter 18

Chapter 18

The Art of Impromptu Speaking

impromptu speaking
Impromptu Speaking
  • Strong oral tradition
  • Importance in contemporary society
  • Neglected as a formal skill
  • Need training and practice
impromptu topics
Impromptu Topics
  • Subjects
  • Objects
  • Quotations
division of structure
Division of Structure
  • Classification
  • Unification
  • Cause-effect-solution
preparing for impromptu speaking
Preparing for Impromptu Speaking

Must be an on-going process

  • Read deliberately
  • Practice making associations
  • Breath support
  • Muscle relaxation
  • Fluency & pace
tips to consider
Tips to Consider…
  • Consider your audience
  • Be brief
  • Organize your ideas
  • Speak honestly, but with reserve
  • Speak from personal knowledge & experience
  • Be cautious