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18.4 The Texas Homefront. The Wartime Economy and the Draft. Although Texas suffered less than the other Confederate states because very few battles were fought in the state, Texans experienced many hardships. Goods became scarce and were very expensive. The Wartime Economy and the Draft.

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the wartime economy and the draft
The Wartime Economy and the Draft
  • Although Texas suffered less than the other Confederate states because very few battles were fought in the state, Texans experienced many hardships.
  • Goods became scarce and were very expensive.
the wartime economy and the draft1
The Wartime Economy and the Draft
  • Many newspapers stopped operation because of lack of paper.
  • Shortages were also created because supplies, particularly medicines, were sent to Confederate armies.
the wartime economy and the draft2
The Wartime Economy and the Draft
  • Texans adapted to the wartime shortages, using thorns for pens and wallpaper for writing paper.
  • When coffee beans became scarce, people used corn, okra, parched peanuts or sweet potatoes to make drinks.
  • Texans also made homespun clothing
the wartime economy and the draft3
The Wartime Economy and the Draft
  • To feed the army, farmers grew more corn and wheat and less cotton.
  • Crop production also increased as slaveholders in other states sent slaves to Texas to prevent them being freed by Union occupation forces.
the wartime economy and the draft4
The Wartime Economy and the Draft
  • Women and children ran farms and plantations, as did men who were unable to serve in the Army.
  • Women on the home front also worked in small factories and made items at home.
the wartime economy and the draft5
The Wartime Economy and the Draft
  • Women also organized groups to support the war effort.
  • These groups made uniforms, bandages and made medical supplies.
  • They also provided aid to the families of soldiers
the wartime economy and the draft6
The Wartime Economy and the Draft
  • The state’s political activity also focused on the war effort.
  • All office-holders strongly supported the Confederacy.
  • Francis R. Lubbock, who had been elected governor in 1861, joined the Confederate army in 1863.

Francis R. Lubbock

the wartime economy and the draft7
The Wartime Economy and the Draft
  • Pendleton Murrah was elected governor of Texas in 1863.
  • Like Lubbock, Murrah struggled with state debts, defending the frontier against raids by American Indians, and raising troops for the Confederacy.

Pendleton Murrah

the wartime economy and the draft8
The Wartime Economy and the Draft
  • Although thousands of men had volunteered at the beginning of the war, they were not enough.
  • In April 1862, the Confederate Congress passed a draft or requirement of military service.
  • All white males between the ages of 18 – 35 had to serve.
  • The age limits were later broadened to 17 and 50.
the wartime economy and the draft9
The Wartime Economy and the Draft
  • There were several loop holes in the law.
  • People with certain key jobs were exempt.
  • Men could also buy their way out of service or provide a substitute.
  • Because of these loopholes some southerners complained that it was a “rich man’s war and a poor man’s fight”
the wartime economy and the draft10
The Wartime Economy and the Draft
  • Even with the draft, the Confederacy struggled throughout the war to put enough soldiers in the field.

Fallen Confederate Soldiers

unionists in texas
Unionists in Texas
  • The Confederate draft sparked fierce opposition from some Unionists.
  • Although many joined the war effort, some refused to fight for either side.
  • Many German-Americans and Mexican-Americans remained neutral.
  • When the draft was passed, Texans had to choose sides.
  • Many Unionists fled Texas to avoid the draft.

Texas Unionists forced to fight for the Confederacy

unionists in texas1
Unionists in Texas
  • Confederate officials regarded many Texas Unionists as potentially dangerous traitors.
  • Officials placed some areas under martial law , or ruled by armed forces.
  • Some Unionists were violently attacked.
unionists in texas2
Unionists in Texas
  • In August 1862 about 60 German Texans tried to flee to Mexico rather than be drafted into the Confederate army.
  • The Texas militia caught and attacked them near the Nueces River killing many.
  • When German communities in Central Texas organized a protest, Confederates hanged 50 protesters.
unionists in texas3
Unionists in Texas
  • Confederate leaders also worried about Unionists in North Texas.
  • In Oct. 1862 Confederate troops arrested more than 150 suspected Unionists and formed a court to try the accused people.
  • A mob soon took over.
  • By the time the violence had ended, 40 suspected Unionists were hanged in Gainesville.