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The Homefront

The Homefront

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The Homefront

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  1. The Homefront

  2. FDR Utilizes Propaganda • Fighting for the Four Freedoms • Freedom of Speech • Freedom of Worship • Freedom from Want • Freedom from Fear

  3. OCD: Office of Civilian Defense • FDR: “Contribute an hour a day for the USA.” • Volunteer air raid wardens • Blackouts enforced to conserve energy • “Spy the Sky” • You never know when the enemy might attack • Grow a “Victory Garden” • 40% of vegetables produced during the war were grown by citizens, in their personal gardens • Recycle, reuse • Patriotic to contribute newspaper, rubber, aluminum, tin, etc.

  4. OWI: Office of War Information • Coordinated war news from federal bureaucracy • Newspapers, radio & movies used to inform all Americans of progress & policies • Government enlists the help of Hollywood & Celebes • Warner Brothers: Army Air Force First Motion Picture Unit • Training videos • Recruiting propaganda (Jimmy Stewart) • Roles of Civilians • “Pinups” • Betty Grable & Rita Hayworth • Bob Hope organizes the USO (United Service Org.) to entertain the troops!

  5. An Economic Shift • Relief and Recovery achieved • GNP: $90.5 Billion (‘39) to $212 Billion (’45) • 17 million jobs created • Overtime available to whomever wanted it • New workers needed • Female employment raises from 25% to 34% • Total of 6 million • Rosie the Riveter • Many wanted to continue to work, forced to leave!

  6. WPB: War Productions Board • December 7, 1941 • 15% of Industry devoted to war production • WPB Goal • Convince industry to switch from civilian to military production • Out with consumer goods, in with products of war • Need: 300,000 planes, 86,000 tanks, 76,000 ships, 2.6 million machine guns, 40 billion bullets • Success • New plant constructed with government help • Merchant ships: 105 days to construct (’41) to 14 days (’45) • Some plants ordered to slow down!

  7. Economic Problems Persist • Full employment spurs consumerism • Better wages creates increase demand • 25% hourly wage increase • 70% weekly salary increase • Short supply of consumer goods leads to price increase for “luxury” items • Inflation not far behind • NWLB: National War Labor Board • Purpose: control rapid inflation (15% in 3 yrs) • CPI (consumer price index) indicates wages and price rose in conjunction with one another.

  8. OPA: Office of Price Administration • Goal: reduce demand • Procedure • Set price ceilings (maximums) • Institute rationing system • Coupons needed to purchase food, gas, shoes, etc • First national speed limit created (gas & rubber) • Determined by size of the family, occupation, etc • Most families, 4 gallons of gas a week • Violations: 10 years in prison, $10,000 fine • Black market created

  9. Paying for the War • Estimated $321 Billion to fight the war • Only 40% generate from taxes • 1942 – Revenue Act establishes federal income tax • 1913 – first federal income tax law written • For the first time, individuals and corporations mandated to pay tax on the money they made the previous year. • 1943 – Employers offer payroll deduction as option • Liberty Bonds sold again • Generate 60% of war budget • Hollywood recruited once again • Stamp collections • Kids encouraged to help ($18.75 investment, 10 years later $25)