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  1. Homefront Mobilizing for War

  2. One similarity between WWI and WWII on the home front was that A. Japanese Americans were forcibly interned B. young men protested by burning their draft cards C. women filled many jobs traditionally held by men D. African Americans left the North to migrate to the South

  3. Starter Japanese suicide pilots were know as _________ pilots. A. Shinto B. Samurai C. Kamikaze D. Amphtrac

  4. Starter One complaint of African Americans at the beginning of WWII was that they were A. integrated B. employed C. empowered D. disenfranchised

  5. Converting the Economy During the war American workers were twice as productive as Germans five times more productive than the Japanese “American production, without which this war would have been lost” -Joseph Stalin

  6. Pre-War Preparations When Germany entered France, FDR declared a national emergency Built 50,000 warplanes a year Asked for $4 billion to build a “Two-Ocean” Navy Defense budget was at $17 billion by October 1940 Created a National Defense Advisory Committee

  7. Cost-Plus Contracts Government agreed to pay a company whatever it cost to make a product, PLUS a guaranteed percentage of the costs as profit Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) made loans to companies wanting to convert factories to war production

  8. Tanks for Cars Automobile industry was uniquely suited to mass production of military equipment Built vehicles, artillery, rifles, mines, helmet, pontoon bridges The auto industry produced nearly 1/3 of all military equipment

  9. Liberty Ships Henry Kaiser went from construction to ship building (built 30% of all ships) Prefabricated parts and brought them to shipyards Liberty Ship basic cargo ship Went from 244 days to build to 41 days by the end of the war 3,000 built

  10. War Production Board (WPB) Set priorities and production goals, distributed raw materials and supplies Clashed with the military Military continued to sign contracts without consulting the WPB

  11. Office of War Mobilization (OWM) Settled arguments between different agencies

  12. Building an Army Selective Service and Training Act (1940) first peacetime draft in American history approved by Congress in September More than 60,000 enlisted after Pearl Harbor At first the army did not have the facilities or equipment to train that many

  13. A Segregated Army At the beginning of the war the military was segregated African Americans served in separate units commanded by white officers Most even wanted to keep them out of combat

  14. “Double V” Campaign 1941 the National Urban League encouraged members to join the war effort Support the war to get victory over Hitler’s racism abroad and racism at home

  15. African Americans in Combat FDR ordered all branches to recruit African Americans and put them into combat 1941 the Air Force created its first African American unit-- 99th Pursuit Squadron Became known as the “Tuskegee Airmen”

  16. Military bases were integrated in 1943 President Truman would fully integrate the military in 1948

  17. Other Minorities in the Military Japanese American were not allowed to serve in the military at first Second-generation Japanese Americans served in the 100th Infantry Battalion and the 442nd Regimental Combat Team 1/2 had been in internment camps became the most decorated units in the history of the U.S. military

  18. Mexican Americans joined the National Guard during the 1930s and served on the front lines Most minorities served in non-combat positions Native Americans were the exception 1/3 between 18-50 served

  19. Women in the Armed Forces Women served in WWI Most worked in administrative and clerical positions Women’s Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) May 1942 First allowed women in the military Headed by Oveta Culp Hobby

  20. Women’s Army Corps (WAC) replaced WAAC Hobby appointed Colonel Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASPs) training began in 1942 delivered planes 300 pilots made over 12,000 deliveries of 77 kinds of planes

  21. The Coast Guard, Navy, and Marines also set up women’s units 68,000 women served as nurses in the army and navy

  22. Starter: African Americans pushed for a ______ victory in the war effort. A. Tuskegee B. Triple C C. Double V D. Carver

  23. Life on the Home Front

  24. End of the Great Depression Created 19 million jobs Doubled the income of the average family Problems Had to move where jobs were Increased taxes, race riots, poor housing, increased juvenile delinquency, rationing

  25. “Rosie the Riveter”

  26. Women • Worked in airplane plants and shipyards as riveters, steelworkers, and welders • numbers increased from 12.9 to 18.8 million • Challenges • men in the workforce, childcare, and unequal pay • When the war was over many were expected to return home

  27. African Americans • FDR issued Executive Order 8802 on June 25, 1941 • “There shall be no discrimination in the employment of workers in defense industries or government because of race, creed, color, or national origin” • Fair Labor Practices Commission • enforced the order • first civil rights agency since Reconstruction

  28. Mexican Farmworkers • Bracero Program (1942-1964) • program organized by the government • more than 200,000 Mexicans came to the Southwest to work

  29. Moving • 15 million moved during the war • most moved west and south • Sunbelt: southern California and into the Deep South • Housing Crisis • Lanham Act (1940): provided $150 million for housing • National Housing Agency (NHA): coordinated government housing

  30. Worn by Mexican American teenagers in California June 1943 rumors that zoot-suiters attacked sailors caused 2,500 soldiers and sailors to attack Mexican American neighborhoods in LA The Zoot Suit Riots

  31. War Bonds • Federal spending increased from $8.9 billion in 1939 to $95.2 billion in 1945 • Costs from 1941 to 1945 totaled $321 billion • Higher taxes paid for much of the war • Began selling bonds in 1941 • Total sales reached $186 billion

  32. Pop Culture • Income levels rise because of jobs created in wartime industry • “Baby Boom” • Books and movies (Casablanca) • Baseball • 4,000 of 5,700 major and minor league players were in the service • 1943 Philip Wrigley founded the AAGSL that became the AAGBL in 1945

  33. Shortages and Controls • More war production=less consumer goods • Office of Price Administration (OPA) began rationing tires and other goods to fairly distribute scarce items • Ration books of coupons for certain goods including gasoline • Victory Gardens

  34. How did the federal government control the economy during the war? • The government controlled the economy through wage and price controls, rationing, and the selling of bonds to pay for the war.

  35. Starter • The Office of Price Administration began rationing, or limiting the availability of, many consumer products to make sure enough were available for • A. military use • B. the elderly • C. children • D. schools

  36. Japanese Internment In 1941 there were only about 127,000 in the U.S., most lived on the west coast Nisei- born in the U.S. From parents who emigrated from Japan Feb. 19, 1942 FDR signed an order that allowed the Secretary of War to establish military zones on the west coast and remove anyone from those zones

  37. Internment • War Relocation Authority - set up to move everyone of Japanese descent to internment camps (110,000) • Many lost their homes and businesses

  38. Camps were in isolated areas • Wooden barracks with barbed wire and guards around the outside

  39. Italian and German American Relocation • FDR declared any unnaturalized residents of German or Italian descent 14 or over were designated enemy aliens • travel restrictions, ID cards • 5,000 were interned in Montana and North Dakota

  40. In early 1945 they were allowed to leave • In 1988 Congress passed a law awarding each surviving internee $20,000 • 20,000 served in the military • 442nd Regimental Combat Team fought in France and Germany and won more medals than any other unit

  41. In the case Korematsu v. the United States, the Supreme Court ruled that relocation of Japanese Americans was • A. constitutional because it was based on military urgency • B. unconstitutional, and they had to be released at once • C. constitutional, but the government had to pay them property losses • D. unconstitutional because it was based on race

  42. United Nations • FDR believed a new organization could be created to prevent another war • 39 delegates met in 1944 in D.C. • Created the United Nations

  43. General Assembly • each member had 1 vote • vote on resolutions, choose non-permanent members of the security council, vote on budget

  44. Security Council • responsible for international peace and security • 11 members • 5 permanent members with veto power • Britain, France, China, Soviet Union, United States

  45. Charter officially signed on April 25, 1945 • Commission on Human Rights issued the Universal Declaration on Human Rights on 1948 • lists 30 rights for all human beings in all societies

  46. Starter • In what way did the Treaty of Versailles lead to world conflict? • A. it created the League of Nations • B. it partitioned Russia • C. it forced England and France to disarm • D. it led to the economic and political instability of Germany