Chapter 1 Introduction and History of Psychology
Psychology is a broad field, with many specialties, but fundamentally, psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes What Is Psychology – and What Is It Not?
What Is Psychology – and What Is It Not? • Psychology –The scientific study of behavior and mental processes • Psychology is not • Mere speculation about human nature • A body of folk wisdom about people that “everybody knows” to be true
What Is Psychology – and What Is It Not? • Psychology disputes unfounded claims from pseudopsychology Pseudopsychology – Erroneous assertions of practices set forth as being scientific psychology
Psychology is a broad field with many specialties, grouped in three major categories: experimental psychology, teaching of psychology and applied psychology What DoPsychologists Do?
What DoPsychologists Do? • Experimental psychologists: • ____________________________ • _____________________________ • ______________________________
What DoPsychologists Do? • Applied psychologists • Use knowledge developed by experimental psychologists to solve human problems I/O Sports Engineering School Rehabilitation Counseling Clinical
Modern psychology developed from several conflicting traditions, including structuralism, functionalism, Gestalt psychology, behaviorism, and psychoanalysis What Are Psychology’s Historical Roots?
Tradition Devoted to uncovering basic structures that make up mind and thought Structuralism Functionalism Gestaltpsychology Behaviorism Psychoanalysis Wilhelm Wundt
Structuralism Founded by ________ Father of Psychology 1879; Leipzig, Germany First ___________ Known for ideas of Introspection – the process of looking within. Report sensations, images, and feelings of objects.
Tradition William James Structuralism Believed mental processes could best be understood in terms of their adaptive purpose and function Functionalism Gestaltpsychology Behaviorism Psychoanalysis
Functionalism Founded by ___________ 1890’s; Harvard Big fan of Darwin (who, by the way, helped to kick off psychology) Wrote the 1st __________ Disagreed with Wundt – said that sensations are only a part of the picture. What about emotions that are triggered? Our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are adaptive and that there is a specific function of these things.
Tradition Structuralism Functionalism Interested in how we construct “perceptual wholes” Gestalt psychology Behaviorism Psychoanalysis
Gestalt Prominent Gestalt Psychologists ________________ and ____________ Wertheimer was interested in visual illusions and ambiguous figures (like the Necker Cube we saw earlier). Kohler was interested in “a-ha” moments known as “insight learning”, which is when we see something for being more than what it is or suddenly “get it!”. Relied on introspection – report sensations and what you see and feel. However, the idea is that the “________________________________________________”
Tradition Structuralism Functionalism Gestalt psychology John B. Watson Argued psychology should deal solely with observable events Behaviorism Psychoanalysis
Behaviorism Led by ____________ in the 1920’s. They were the ones that liked to cause controversy – they disagreed with everyone else. They were only interested in observable behaviors because that was the only thing that could be considered “reliable evidence.” So, forget what people are ___________, they were only interested in why people were ____________ or ____________.
Tradition Structuralism Functionalism Gestalt psychology Sigmund Freud Behaviorism Asserted mental disorders arise from conflicts in the unconscious mind Psychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis • “Nomophobia is the fear of being out of mobile phone contact - and it's the plague of our 24/7 age” • “Experts say nomophobia could affect up to 53 percent of mobile phone users.” Father of Psychoanalysis is ____________ – 1930’s. Said that all problems arise or are related to __________________– it is the infantile source of behavior (id, ego, superego). Where do our hidden fears or desires come from; how is our past related to our fears and desires and obsessions?
(1)Psychoanalytic, (2)Cognitive, (3)Behavioral, (4)Humanistic, (5)Biological, (6)Sociocultural, (7)Evolutionary 3 4 5 2 1 6 7
Perspective Biological View of Human Nature: We are driven by dark forces of the unconscious Developmental Cognitive What Determines Behavior: Unconscious needs, conflicts, repressed memories, and childhood experiences 1.Psychodynamic or Psychoanalytic Humanistic Behavioral Slogan/Mnemonic: Sociocultural Evolutionary/Sociobiological Trait
Perspective Biological View of Human Nature: People are information-processing systems Developmental 2. Cognitive What Determines Behavior: Mental interpretation of our experience Psychodynamic Humanistic Behavioral Slogan/Mnemonic Sociocultural Evolutionary/Sociobiological Trait
Perspective Biological View of Human Nature: Behavior is primarily shaped by learning Developmental Cognitive What Determines Behavior: Stimulus cues and our history of rewards and punishments Psychodynamic Humanistic 3. Behavioral Slogan/Mnemonic Sociocultural Evolutionary/Sociobiological Trait
Perspective Biological View of Human Nature: Emphasizes human growth and potential Developmental Cognitive What Determines Behavior: The influence of self-concept, perceptions, and interpersonal relationships, and on need for personal growth Psychodynamic 4. Humanistic Behavioral Sociocultural Slogan/Mnemonic: Evolutionary/Sociobiological Trait
Perspective View of Human Nature: We are complex systems that respond to hereditary and environmental influences 5.Biological or Biopsychological Developmental Cognitive What Determines Behavior: Neural structures, biochemistry, and inborn responses to external cues Psychodynamic Humanistic Behavioral Slogan/Mnemonic: Sociocultural Evolutionary/Sociobiological Trait
Perspective View of Human Nature: People are social animals, so human behavior must be interpreted in social context Biological Developmental Cognitive What Determines Behavior: Cultures, social norms and expectations, social learning Psychodynamic Humanistic Slogan/Mnemonic: Behavioral 6.Sociocultural Evolutionary/Sociobiological Trait
Perspective Biological Developmental Cognitive View of Human Nature: Behavior is developed and adapted over time Psychodynamic Humanistic Behavioral What Determines Behavior: Natural selection Sociocultural Slogan/Mnemonic: 7.Evolutionary/Sociobiological Trait
Perspective View of Human Nature: We undergo predictable patterns of change throughout our lives Biological 8.Developmental What Determines Behavior: Interaction between heredity and environment Cognitive Psychodynamic Humanistic Slogan/Mnemonic: Behavioral Sociocultural Evolutionary/Sociobiological Trait
Perspective View of Human Nature: Individual differences result from differences in our underlying patterns of stable characteristics Biological Developmental Cognitive What Determines Behavior: Each person’s unique combination of traits Psychodynamic Humanistic Behavioral Slogan/Mnemonic: Sociocultural Evolutionary/Sociobiological 9.Trait