Regents Review Bill of Rights & Amendments
Bill of Rights • First ten amendments to the Constitution. • Adopted in 1791 • Protect the rights of individuals against government. • Added to get the Anti-Federalists to approve the Constitution.
First Amendment • Identify- freedom of speech, press, religion, assembly and petition. • Why added-Freedom of the Press- Zenger case: tried for libel for accusing Governor of New York of wrongdoing, not guilty. • Freedom of religion- colonies based on religious toleration. Enlightenment ideas – Voltaire: freedom of speech. Petition the government for grievances.
Fourth Amendment • Identify-Protects against unreasonable searches and seizures. • Why added-must obtain a search warrant from a judge. The person requesting the warrant must provide specific information. American Revolution homes were searched looking for smuggled goods.
13th, 14th & 15th Amendments • Identify- • 13th Abolished slavery • 14th- African American citizenship and equal protection under the law. • 15th- black male suffrage. • Ratified during Reconstruction period.
13th, 14th & 15th Amendments • Why added- • 13th- abolitionist movement • 14th- Plessy v. Ferguson • 15th- poll taxes, literacy tests and grandfather clause.
18th and 21st Amendment • Identify- • 18th- 1919- prohibits the sale, manufacture, consumption and transportation of alcohol. • 21st – 1933- repealed Prohibition
18th and 21st Amendments • Why added- • Temperance Movement began in the 1820’s. • Goal- outlawing the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages. • Women’s Christian Temperance Union (1874). Anti-Saloon League.
18th and 21st (continued) • Alcohol caused problems like poverty, disease, crime and domestic violence. • Led to adoption of 18th amendment. • Prohibition was unenforceable. • Stimulated organized crime (Al Capone), bootlegging and speakeasies. • 1933 repealed.